Mark 10:19 You know the commandments...

Greek Verse: 

Literal Translation: 

The rules you have seen: you don't want to defiled a woman, you don't want to murder, you don't want to cheat , you don't want to bear false witness, you don't want to rob, revere that father of your and that mother.

KJV Verse: 

Mark 10:19 Thou knowest the commandments, Do not commit adultery, Do not kill, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Defraud not, Honour thy father and mother.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This is Christ's answer to how the question about how we can "inherit eternal life". The term translated in KJV does not mean "to know" in Greek but it is consistently translated that way in the Gospels. Instead, the Greek term means "to see" and "to look." Here and in many other places, Christ's words indicate that our understanding is never certain. We can only look and learn. Christ consistently says that we must work for understanding, that it doesn't come automatically.

Greek Vocabulary: 

τὰς (article pl fem acc) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos.

ἐντολὰς (noun pl fem acc) "Commandments" is entole which means "injunction", "order," and "command."

οἶδας ( verb 2nd sg perf ind act ) "Thou knowest" is eido which means "to see", "to examine", "to perceive", "to behold", "to know how to do", "to see with the mind's eye," and "to know."

Μὴ (partic) "Not" is me , which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective.

μοιχεύσῃς, (verb 2nd sg aor subj act ) "Do...commit adultery" is from moicheuô (a different word than previous verses on marriage), which means "commit adultery with a woman" or "to debauch her."

Μὴ (partic) "Not" is me , which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective.

φονεύσῃς, (verb 2nd sg aor subj act) "Do...kill" is from phoneuō, which means "to kill", "to murder", "to be slain [passive], and "to stain with blood."

Μὴ (partic) "Not" is me , which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective.

κλέψῃς, (verb 2nd sg aor subj act) "Do...steal" is from klepto which means "to steal", "to cheat", "to spirit away", "to conceal", "to keep secret", "to do secretly", "to seize or occupy secretly", "to bring about secreand "to do secretly or treacherously."

Μὴ (partic) "Not" is me , which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective.

ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς, (verb 2nd sg aor subj act) "Do...bear false witness" is from pseudomartureô, which means "to bear false witness."

ἀποστερήσῃς, (verb 2nd sg aor subj act) "Defraud" is from apostereô (apostereô) which means to "rob", "despoil", "defraud", "to withhold a payment of a debt," and "to flick way.

Τίμα (verb 2nd sg pres imperat act) "Honor" is from the Greek timaô (timao), which means "to revere", "to honor," and "to value." In the original Hebrew, it is fromkabad, which means "to be heavy", "to be rich," and "to be honored."

τὸν (article sg masc acc) Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

πατέρα (noun sg masc acc) "Father" is from pater (pater), which means "father", "grandfather", "author", "parent," and "forefathers."

σου (adj sg masc gen) "Thy" is sou which means "of you" and "your." 

καὶ  (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but."

τὴν (article sg fem acc) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."-- The word translated as "the" [The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

μητέρα. ( noun sg fem acc ) "Mother" is from mêtêr (meter), which means "mother", "grandmother", "mother hen", "source," and "origin."

KJV Analysis: 

Thou -- This is from the second-person singular form of the verb.

knowest -- The verb translated as "knowest" means "to see" but it is used like we use the word "see" to mean "to know" or "to perceive." It is in the tense that indicates something completed in the past, "have seen".

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

commandments, The word translated as "commandments" has the sense of a direct "order" or "command" given by someone as opposed to a body of law or tradition in society.

Do -- This is from the plural, second-person command form of the verb.

not -- The negative used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion. The sense is that "you don't want" to do something, not that it isn't done or don't think something that might be true. If it wasn't done or wasn't true, the objective negative of fact would be used.

commit adultery, "Commit adultery" is the Greek verb which means "commit adultery with a woman" or "to debauch her." Jesus also used it to refer to betraying another.

Do -- This is from the plural, second-person command form of the verb.

not -- The negative used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion. The sense is that "you don't want" to do something, not that it isn't done or don't think something that might be true. If it wasn't done or wasn't true, the objective negative of fact would be used.

kill, "Kill" is  a verb that means "to kill", "to murder", "to be slain [passive], and "to stain with blood."

Do -- This is from the plural, second-person command form of the verb.

not -- The negative used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion. The sense is that "you don't want" to do something, not that it isn't done or don't think something that might be true. If it wasn't done or wasn't true, the objective negative of fact would be used.

steal, -- "Steal" is the Greek verb that means "to steal", "to cheat", "to spirit away", "to conceal", "to keep secret",and "to do secretly or treacherously."

Do -- This is from the plural, second-person command form of the verb.

not -- The negative used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion. The sense is that "you don't want" to do something, not that it isn't done or don't think something that might be true. If it wasn't done or wasn't true, the objective negative of fact would be used.

bear false witness, "Do...bear false witness" is a verb that literally which means "to bear false witness" or to "fake testify".

Defraud The verb translated as "defraud" means to "rob", "despoil", "defraud", "to withhold a payment of a debt," and "to flick way". Its meaning overlaps with "steal" but stealing is something done in secret. This verb does not appear in Matthew and Luke versions.

not -- The negative used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion. The sense is that "you don't want" to do something, not that it isn't done or don't think something that might be true. If it wasn't done or wasn't true, the objective negative of fact would be used.

Honour "Honor" is a Greek verb that means "to revere", "to honor," and "to value." In the original Hebrew, it is from kabad, which means "to be heavy", "to be rich," and "to be honored." Though the Greek word doesn't have the same sense of "weight" as the Hebrew, weight is often connected in Greek with value. In a commodity based society, value and weight were the same. We say that we give "weight" to an arguments in the same sense that the ancients would give "weight" to the rules of a leader or a God.

untranslated --  The untranslated word is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

thy -- The word translated as "thy" is possessive form of the second person pronoun.

father "Father" is the Greek noun that means "father" or any male ancestor so "forefathers". It is the word that Christ uses to address his own Father. 

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

untranslated --  The untranslated word is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

mother. -- "Mother" is the common Greek word for "mother" and "grandmothers," but it also means "the source" of something.

Related Verses: 

Front Page Date: 

Oct 9 2019