Luke 18:20 Thou knowest the commandments, Do not commit adultery...

KJV Verse: 

Luke 18:20 Thou knowest the commandments, Do not commit adultery, Do not kill, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Honour thy father and thy mother.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

The rules you have seen: you don't want to defiled a woman, you don't want to murder, you don't want to cheat , you don't want to bear false witness, revere the father of your and mother.

Hidden Meaning: 

This is Christ's answer to how the question about how we can "inherit eternal life". It is interesting that in this (and parallels in Matthew and Mark, the negatives here are not in the form of "commands" that is, the Greek imperative, but more like suggestions.

The similar verses in Matthew and Mark (Mark 10:19, Matthew 19:17,  :18, :19) all follow the verses on letting children come to him. This is unlikely to have happened twice in this way. This version and Mark are nearly identical except for one additional command in Mark. Matthew has a different beginning as part of the previous verse and its verb forms are different. 

The verb translated as "thou knowest" means "to see" but it is used like we use the word "see" to mean "to know" or "to perceive." It is in the tense that indicates something completed in the past, "have seen".

The word translated as "the commandments" has the sense of a direct "order" or "command" given by someone as opposed to a body of law or tradition in society.

All the "nots" in this verse are the Greek negative of a subjective opinion. The sense is that "you don't want" to do something, not that it isn't done or don't think something that might be true. This is the normal negative used with the command form, but none of the verbs are in the command form.

"Do...commit adultery" is the Greek verb which means "commit adultery with a woman" or "to debauch her." Jesus also used it to refer to betraying another.

"Do...kill" is  a verb that means "to kill", "to murder", "to be slain [passive], and "to stain with blood."

Do...steal" is the Greek verb that means "to steal", "to cheat", "to spirit away", "to conceal", "to keep secret",and "to do secretly or treacherously."

"Do...bear false witness" is a verb that literally which means "to bear false witness" or to "fake testify".

"Honor" is a Greek verb that means "to revere", "to honor," and "to value." In the original Hebrew, it is from kabad, which means "to be heavy", "to be rich," and "to be honored." Though the Greek word doesn't have the same sense of "weight" as the Hebrew, weight is often connected in Greek with value. In a commodity based society, value and weight were the same. We say that we give "weight" to an arguments in the same sense that the ancients would give "weight" to the rules of a leader or a God.

The word translated as "thy" is possessive form of the second person pronoun.

"Father" is the Greek noun that means "father" or any male ancestor so "forefathers". It is the word that Christ uses to address his own Father. 

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

"Mother" is the common Greek word for "mother" and "grandmothers," but it also means "the source" of something.

Wordplay: 

Vocabulary: 

τὰς ἐντολὰς (noun pl fem acc) "Commandments" is entole which means "injunction", "order," and "command."

οἶδας ( verb 2nd sg perf ind act ) "Thou knowest" is eido which means "to see", "to examine", "to perceive", "to behold", "to know how to do", "to see with the mind's eye," and "to know."

Μὴ (partic) "Not" is me , which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective.

μοιχεύσῃς, (verb 2nd sg aor subj act ) "Do...commit adultery" is from moicheuô (a different word than previous verses on marriage), which means "commit adultery with a woman" or "to debauch her."

Μὴ (partic) "Not" is me , which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective.

φονεύσῃς, (verb 2nd sg aor subj act) "Do...kill" is from phoneuō, which means "to kill", "to murder", "to be slain [passive], and "to stain with blood."

Μὴ (partic) "Not" is me , which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective.

κλέψῃς, (verb 2nd sg aor subj act) "Do...steal" is from klepto which means "to steal", "to cheat", "to spirit away", "to conceal", "to keep secret", "to do secretly", "to seize or occupy secretly", "to bring about secreand "to do secretly or treacherously."

Μὴ (partic) "Not" is me , which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective.

ψευδομαρτυρήσῃς, (verb 2nd sg aor subj act) "Do...bear false witness" is from pseudomartureô, which means "to bear false witness."

Τίμα (verb 2nd sg pres imperat act) "Honor" is from the Greek timao, which means "to revere", "to honor," and "to value." In the original Hebrew, it is from kabad, which means "to be heavy", "to be rich," and "to be honored."

τὸν πατέρα (noun sg masc acc) "Father" is from pater (pater), which means "father", "grandfather", "author", "parent," and "forefathers."

σου (adj sg masc gen) "Thy" is sou which means "of you" and "your." 

καὶ  (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

τὴν μητέρα. ( noun sg fem acc ) "Mother" is from mêtêr (meter), which means "mother", "grandmother", "mother hen", "source," and "origin."

Related Verses: 

Oct 21 2018