Mark 4:21 Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel,

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Much less does it start itself, the lamp, so that it might be put under the basket or under the couch. No, so that upon the lamp stand it might be put!

KJV : 

Mark 4:21 Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed? and not to be set on a candlestick?

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The verb "is" beginning this verse is not a normal "is," nor is it a verb at all but an adverb.  Nor is the word translated as "to be," which is a different adverb. The beginning of this verse almost certainly indicates Jesus was answering a question that was not recorded. Nor do this clauses look like questions. 

Also all the definite articles ("the") are left out of this verse. I say "left out" instead of translated to indefinite articles ("a","an") because Greek has no definite articles. Greek words without definite articles can be translated into English with an "a" or "an." Here, they all have definite articles.

It is interesting that the word "lamp" works better in the time of Jesus and now than "candle" while candle worked better during the time of the KJV translation. In that respect, we are more like the Greeks of Christ time, who used oil lamps, that the British of King Jame period who used candles.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

 Μήτι [uncommon](adv) "Is" is metis, which is the adverb, meaning "let alone", "much less", "do I [in direct questions], "lest anyone", "lest anything", "that no one," and "that nothing."

ἔρχεται (verb 3rd sg pres ind mp) "it brought" is erchomai, which means "to start," "to set out", "to come", "to go," and any kind of motion. It means both "to go" on a journey and "to arrive" at a place.

(art sg masc nom) Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." --

λύχνος (noun sg masc nom) "Candle" is from luchnos, which means a "portable lamp", "illumination," or "lamp."

ἵνα (adv/conj) "To be" is hina, which means "in that place", "there", "where", "when", "that", "in order that", "when," and "because." -- The word translated as "that" is an adverb or a conjunction that starts a subordinate clause "there", "where," and "in order that."

τεθῇ  (verb 3rd sg aor subj pass ) "Put" is tithemi, which means "to put", "to place", "to propose", "to suggest", "to deposit", "to set up", "to dedicate", "to assign", "to award", "to agree upon", "to institute", "to establish", "to make", "to work", "to prepare oneself," "to bear arms [military]," "to lay down and surrender [military]," "to lay in the grave", "to bury," and "to put words on paper [writing]," and a metaphor for "to put in one's mind."

ὑπὸ (prep) "Underis from hypo (hupo), which means "by", "before,' and "under."

τὸν (art sg masc acc) Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

μόδιον (noun sg masc acc) "A bushel" is from modioswhich measures 7.8 dry quarts about 1/4 of a bushel and vessels, jars or baskets, of that volume.nor under a basket 

(conj/adv) "Or" is which is a particle meaning "either", "or," or "than." -- "Than" is translated from a Greek word that means primarily "or" but serves as "than" in a comparison.

ὑπὸ (prep) "Underis from hypo (hupo), which means "by", "before,' and "under."

τὴν  (art sg fem acc) Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

κλίνην, (noun sg fem acc) The word translated as "bed" is kline, which means "that on which one lies, "couch," and a "grave-niche."

οὐχ (partic) "Not" is ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective. --

ἵνα (adv/conj) "That" is hina, which means "in that place", "there", "where", "when", "that", "in order that", "when," and "because." -- The word translated as "that" is an adverb or a conjunction that starts a subordinate clause "there", "where," and "in order that."

ἐπὶ (prep) "On" is epi, which means "on", "upon", "at", "by", "before", "across," "during", and "against." -- The word translated as "unto" means "against", "before", "during", "by" or "on."

τὴν (art sg fem acc) Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." -

λυχνίαν ( noun sg fem acc ) "Candlestick" is luchnia, which means a "lamp stand."

τεθῇ (verb 3rd sg aor subj pass ) "Set" is tithemi which means "to put", "to place", "to propose", "to suggest", "to deposit", "to set up", "to dedicate", "to assign", "to award", "to agree upon", "to institute", "to establish", "to make", "to work", "to prepare oneself," "to bear arms [military]," "to lay down and surrender [military]," "to lay in the grave", "to bury," and "to put words on paper [writing]," and a metaphor for "to put in one's mind."

KJV Analysis: 

Is This is an uncommon adverb, meaning "let alone", "much less", "do I [in direct questions], : "let alone", "much less", "lest any one", "lest anything", "that no one," and "that nothing." Or it could be the dative form of the noun meaning "wisdom", "skill", "craft", "counsel", " plan," and "undertaking."

a The word translated as "a" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

candle "Candle" is a noun that means a "portable lamp", "illumination," or "lamp."

brought The word translated as "brought" primarily means "to start out," but Christ usually uses it to mean "come" but not always. It indicates movement, especially its beginning, without indicating a direction toward or away from anything, so it works either as "come" or "go," but it is more like our phrase "being underway." Our English word "show up" captures both the "start" and "come" ideas. The voice is either passive or middle, "started" or "start itself"

to be  The word translated as "to  be" is not a verb, but an adverb that means "because," "there", "where," and "in order that."

put The Greek word translated as "put" is  a Greek word that means primarily "to put," and "to place," but which has many related meanings as well. The voice is passive, "be put" and in the form of possibility, "might be put."

under The preposition translated as "under" primarily means "by", "under," or "with" (with the genitive and a passive verb). Its primary meaning is "under" both in the sense of moving under, being under, and being under different forms of compulsion.

a The word translated as "a" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

bushel, "Bushel" is a noun that measures 7.8 dry quarts about 1/4 of a bushel and vessels, jars or baskets, of that volume.nor under a basket 

or "Or" is translated from a Greek word that means primarily "or" but serves as "than" in a comparison.

under The preposition translated as "under" primarily means "by", "under," or "with" (with the genitive and a passive verb). Its primary meaning is "under" both in the sense of moving under, being under, and being under different forms of compulsion.

a The word translated as "a" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

bed? The word translated as "bed" means "that on which one lies," but it also means a "grave-niche."

and There is no "and" in the Greek.

not  The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence captures the same idea.

to be The word translated as "to  be" is not a verb, but an adverb that means "there", "because," "where," and "in order that."

set The Greek word translated as "put" is  a Greek word that means primarily "to put," and "to place," but which has many related meanings as well. The voice is passive, "be put" and in the form of possibility, "might be put."

on The word translated as "unto" means "on", "over", "upon", "against", "before", "after", "during", "by" or "on."

a The word translated as "a" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

candlestick? "Candlestick" is a noun that means a "lamp stand."

Front Page Date: 

Jun 28 2019