Mark 15:34...Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?

Greek : 

ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 15:34... “Ἐλωί ἐλωί λαμὰ σαβαχθανεί;” ...“ θεός μου [ὁ θεός μου], εἰς τί ἐγκατέλιπές με;”

The Greek of Psalm 22 from the Septuagint: ὁ θεὸς ὁ θεός μου πρόσχες μοι ἵνα τί ἐγκατέλιπές με

Literal Verse: 

The Divine of mine, the Divine of mine, you exist, why have you left me behind?

OR

The Divine of mine, the Divine of mine, into what have you left me behind?

KJV : 

Mark 15:34...Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? ... My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

One of the verses that prove that all Judeans didn't speak Aramaic but rather Greek.  those hearing Jesus speak Aramaic here mistake "Eloi" for the Greek name of Elijah, Elias. For more on the topic of Jesus speaking Greek, please refer to this article.

Many people reading this verse today think that means that Jesus felt alienated from his Father at the time of his death. The Jews of his era, would have recognized it for what it really is, the first line of Psalm 22. If you read the Psalm (an English translation here), you can see why he was quoting it: it was a description of his death. Because this line is a quote, we have four sources for this verse, Jesus's word in the Greek both here and in Matthew, the Hebrew Psalm, and the Greek Psalm.
The differences between the Greek of Matthew, Mark, and the Septuagint correspondence between Christ's quotes here in Mark and the Greek Septuagint are slight but telling. The version in Matthew is more different. The fact that the quotes are not exactly as the Septuagint indicate the the Gospel writers did not use it as a source when Jesus's quotes the OT.

NIV : 

Mark 15:34. Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?...My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?

NLT : 

Mark 15:34. Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?...My God, my God, why have you abandoned me?

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

(article sg masc nom) Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." --

θεός (noun sg masc nom) "God" is from theos, which means "God," the Deity."

μου, (noun sg masc gen) "My" is from mou, which means "me", and "mine".

[ὁ (article sg masc nom) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." -

θεός (noun sg masc nom) "God" is from theos, which means "God," the Deity."

μου], (noun sg masc gen) "My" is from mou, which means "me", and "mine".

εἰς (verb 3rd sg pres ind act) Untranslated  is eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," of circumstance and events "to happen",  and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.") Or (prep) "Into" is eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

τί (pron sg neut nom/ acc) "Why" is from tis (with hina below)which can mean "someone", "any one", "everyone", "they [indefinite]", "many a one", "whoever", "anyone", "anything", "some sort", "some sort of", "each", "any", "the individual", "such," and so on. In a question, it can mean "who", "why," or "what."

ἐγκατέλιπες;” (verb 2nd sg aor ind act) "Forsaken" in the Greek is from egkataleipo, which means "to leave behind", "to leave in the lurch," and "to abandon."

με (pron 1st sg masc acc) "Me" is from eme, which means "I", "me", and "my".

KJV Analysis: 

Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? we are only analyzing the Greek here.

My -- "My" is from the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the form of a genitive. Since it appears after the noun so "of me."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

God, -- The word translated as "God" means "God" and "deity." It is introduced with an article, so "the God" or "the Divine." Jesus often uses it this way perhaps to indicate the one God as opposed to the pagan gods.

my -- "My" is from the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the form of a genitive. Since it appears after the noun so "of me."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

God, -- The word translated as "God" means "God" and "deity." It is introduced with an article, so "the God" or "the Divine." Jesus often uses it this way perhaps to indicate the one God as opposed to the pagan gods.  This is the way it appears in the Septuagint. The form is nominative, not vocative (calling God by names) as in Matthew.  In the original Hebrew of Psalm 22, the word is the simple "El," which means "God" or "Might one."

untranslated "you are" or "into"-- (MW) The untranslated word is either the verb "to be" in the form "you are," or it is the preposition "into." This is different than Matthew and the Septuagint that have a conjunction here that means "because" or "for."  The verbs "are" and "have" are not used as helping verbs in Greek as they are in English so this has nothing to do with the following verb. The preposition would have the meaning "into what."

why -- The word translated as "why" means "anyone", "someone," and "anything", but it plays the roles of the common question words in English: who, what, why, etc.

hast -- (WT) This helping verb "hath" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action competed in the past. This is not the tense of the verbs here.

thou -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

forsaken -- The Greek word translated as "have you forsaken" means to "leave behind" or "to abandon." The Hebrew word, "azab" or azavthani in Psalm 22, means "to leave", "to depart", "to abandon", "to foresake", "to let go," and "to free." The word "sabachthani" is both Aramaic and Mishnaic Hebrew, which was the spoken language at the time. In Hebrew, it would be azab’taniy.

me? "Me" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek.

KJV Translation Issues: 

1
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "you are" or "into" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "hath" seems to indicate an action completed in the past, but the tense is something happening at a point in time past, present, or future.

NIV Analysis: 

Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? we are only analyzing the Greek here.

My -- "My" is from the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the form of a genitive. Since it appears after the noun so "of me."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

God, -- The word translated as "God" means "God" and "deity." It is introduced with an article, so "the God" or "the Divine." Jesus often uses it this way perhaps to indicate the one God as opposed to the pagan gods.

my -- "My" is from the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the form of a genitive. Since it appears after the noun so "of me."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

God, -- The word translated as "God" means "God" and "deity." It is introduced with an article, so "the God" or "the Divine." Jesus often uses it this way perhaps to indicate the one God as opposed to the pagan gods.  This is the way it appears in the Septuagint. The form is nominative, not vocative (calling God by names) as in Matthew.  In the original Hebrew of Psalm 22, the word is the simple "El," which means "God" or "Might one."

untranslated "you are" or "into"-- (MW) The untranslated word is either the verb "to be" in the form "you are," or it is the preposition "into." This is different than Matthew and the Septuagint that have a conjunction here that means "because" or "for."  The verbs "are" and "have" are not used as helping verbs in Greek as they are in English so this has nothing to do with the following verb. The preposition would have the meaning "into what."

why -- The word translated as "why" means "anyone", "someone," and "anything", but it plays the roles of the common question words in English: who, what, why, etc.

have -- (WT) This helping verb "hath" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action competed in the past. This is not the tense of the verbs here.

you -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

abandoned -- The Greek word translated as "abandoned" means to "leave behind" or "to abandon." The Hebrew word, "azab" or azavthani in Psalm 22, means "to leave", "to depart", "to abandon", "to foresake", "to let go," and "to free." The word "sabachthani" is both Aramaic and Mishnaic Hebrew, which was the spoken language at the time. In Hebrew, it would be azab’taniy.

me? "Me" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek.

NIV Translation Issues: 

4
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "you are" or "into" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "hath" seems to indicate an action completed in the past, but the tense is something happening at a point in time past, present, or future.

NLT Analysis: 

Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? we are only analyzing the Greek here.

My -- "My" is from the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the form of a genitive. Since it appears after the noun so "of me."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

God, -- The word translated as "God" means "God" and "deity." It is introduced with an article, so "the God" or "the Divine." Jesus often uses it this way perhaps to indicate the one God as opposed to the pagan gods.

my -- "My" is from the regular first-person pronoun in Greek in the form of a genitive. Since it appears after the noun so "of me."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

God, -- The word translated as "God" means "God" and "deity." It is introduced with an article, so "the God" or "the Divine." Jesus often uses it this way perhaps to indicate the one God as opposed to the pagan gods.  This is the way it appears in the Septuagint. The form is nominative, not vocative (calling God by names) as in Matthew.  In the original Hebrew of Psalm 22, the word is the simple "El," which means "God" or "Might one."

untranslated "you are" or "into"-- (MW) The untranslated word is either the verb "to be" in the form "you are," or it is the preposition "into." This is different than Matthew and the Septuagint that have a conjunction here that means "because" or "for."  The verbs "are" and "have" are not used as helping verbs in Greek as they are in English so this has nothing to do with the following verb. The preposition would have the meaning "into what."

why -- The word translated as "why" means "anyone", "someone," and "anything", but it plays the roles of the common question words in English: who, what, why, etc.

have -- (WT) This helping verb "hath" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action competed in the past. This is not the tense of the verbs here.

you -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

abandoned -- The Greek word translated as "abandoned" means to "leave behind" or "to abandon." The Hebrew word, "azab" or azavthani in Psalm 22, means "to leave", "to depart", "to abandon", "to foresake", "to let go," and "to free." The word "sabachthani" is both Aramaic and Mishnaic Hebrew, which was the spoken language at the time. In Hebrew, it would be azab’taniy.

me? "Me" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek.

NLT Translation Issues: 

4
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "you are" or "into" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "hath" seems to indicate an action completed in the past, but the tense is something happening at a point in time past, present, or future.

Front Page Date: 

Feb 8 2020