Matthew 13:6 And when the sun was up,

KJV Verse: 

Matthw 13:6 And when the sun was up, they were scorched; and because they had no root, they withered away.

 

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

Sun, however, rising, they were burnt and, because of the apparent lack of a foundation, they dried up.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

Strangely, this verse starts with the preposition usually translated as "but", but it is translated as "and." While its parallel in Mark 4:6 starts with the conjunction usually translated as "and," but it is translated as "but." This verse is translated more like the Greek in Mark 4:6 than the Greek here. The "they" here is incorrect since the verb it is taken from is singular, not plural. Again, both forms of negatives, the objective and subjective appear. The phrase "because they had no" follows the exact same form as the same phrase in the previous verse.  It is interesting that the sun is neither a symbol for good nor evil in Christ's teachings despite the sun's long history as a focus of religion. "Light" is symbolic, but the sun and rain are just weather. Christ keeps nature and God clearly separate because of these past confusions. However, in Christ's teaching, light is always beneficial, but heat is always a symbol for pain, suffering, and death. This neat verse captures the balance of beneficial and harmful elements in the natural world. Jesus consistently uses water as the symbol of life and dryness as the symbol of death. Not the description of the land of death as "the dry places" in Mat 12:43.

KJV Analysis: 

And The Greek word translated as "and" joins phrases in an adversarial way and is usually translated as "but." Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.

when There is no "when" in the Greek source. It was added by the KJV translators.

the There is no Greek article here.

sun "Sun" is helios, which means the "sun", "life", "day", "sunshine", "the sun's heat", "brightness," and the sun-god.

was up, "Was up" is a verb which means "to rise", "to make rise up," and "to appear above the horizon." It is in form of an adjective, "rising."

they were scorched; "They were scorched" is a verb that, in the passive, means "to be heated" or "to be burnt up."

and The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

because The word translated as "because" means "through," in the midst of", "because of" or "by (a cause)."

they had  The word translated as "they had" means "to possess", "to hold," or "to keep". However, it is an infinitive, introduced by an article, so it takes on the role of a noun in the negative, so "the lack." The verb is singular and it is not an active verb. It is in the form of an infinitive, "to have."

no The negative "no" used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion. The sense is about appearances not necessarily reality. The use of this form makes sense if Christ is addressing something that we cannot know for sure.

root, "Root" is the Greek noun that means "root" and anything that springs from a root. It includes the roots of hairs, feathers, and teeth. It is also a metaphor for roots as a foundation, such as "the roots of the earth."

they withered away.  "They withered away" is a verb that means "to become dry", "to become parched," and "to wither away." This verb is singular and passive so, "it is withered. "

Greek Vocabulary: 

ἡλίου (noun sg masc gen) "The sun" is from helios, which means the "sun", "life", "day", "sunshine", "the sun's heat", "brightness," and the sun-god. It is not in a

δὲ (partic) "But" is from de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

ἀνατείλαντος (part sg aor act masc gen) "Was up" is from anatellô, which means "to rise", "to make rise up", "to give birth", "to gush forth [water]", "to bring forth", "to spring up [plants]", "rise [mountains]," and "to appear above the horizon [sun,moon]."

ἐκαυματίσθη (verb 3rd sg aor ind pass) "They were scorched" is from kaumatizô, which means "to burn", "to suffer from the heat", "to heat," and, in the passive, "to be heated," "to be burnt up."

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

διὰ (prep) Because" is dia the preposition which means (with gen.) "through", "in the midst of", "in a line (movement)", "throughout (time)", "by (causal)", "among," and "between." With the acc. it means "through," and causally, "because of", "by reason of," and "by aid of."

τὸ (article sg neut acc) This is the Greek article "the" in the form of an object of the proposition. Since it introduces an infinitive verb, that verb acts like a noun.

μὴ "Not" is from me , which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective.

ἔχειν (verb pres inf act) "Have" is from echo, which means "to have", "to hold", "to possess", "to keep", "to have charge of", "to maintain", "to hold fast", "to bear", "to keep close", "to keep safe," and "to have means to do."

ῥίζαν (noun sg fem acc) "Root" is rhiza, which means "root" and anything that springs from a root. It includes the roots of hairs, feathers, and teeth. It is also a metaphor for roots as a foundation, such as "the roots of the earth."

ἐξηράνθη. ( 3rd sg aor ind pass) "They withered away" is from xêrainô, which means "to become dry", "to become parched," and "to wither away."

Wordplay: 

The word translated as "root" is a metaphor for a foundation. 

The word translated as "withered away" means "to dry up" and is a symbol for death. 

The Spoken Version: 

"However," he continued. "They were burned by the sun as it rose!"

His hands rose above his head to block the sun.

"And because of their obvious lack of any depth," he said, holding his hands above him and pausing for the crowd to chuckle.

"They dried up!" he said bowing his head as his armed wilted down around him.

 

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