Matthew 20:19 And shall deliver him to the Gentiles to mock,..

KJV Verse: 

Mat 20:19 And shall deliver him to the Gentiles to mock, and to scourge, and to crucify [him]: and the third day he shall rise again.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

Not only are they going to give him over to the foreigners as far as to mock and to whip and to stake but also he is going to be awakened on the third day.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

A lot of interesting things in this verse below the surface. The word translated as "cross" doesn't quite mean that, though it has come to mean it since. Also the "arise" here is one of three different words Christ uses to describe coming back from death, but they all have one thing in common. Something that is hidden in the translation.

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." It is used in more than one series here, really emphasizing all the will happen. The series here is between the active verbs, translated as "deliver" and "raise."

"Shall deliver" is from a compound word which literally means "to give over." It is the word Christ always used to describe people being "arrested" and taken to the authorities.

"Gentiles" is from the word from which we get our word "ethnic." It means, generally "a number of people living together," any "body of men," or "tribe," but Christ uses it more like "foreigners." The "gentiles" of Christ's time referred to the state power of Rome, but we can assume that it is any group of non-believers. In our time, it is, of course, the secular state.

The word that is really untranslated here "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, but the sense here is "as far as" describing a limit.

All the verbs following this, except for the final one, are a special form in Greek in which verbs act as nouns, describing the action. They refer to the action itself as an object or subject.

"To mock" and "to scourge" are simple words with one meaning. The first, making fun of someone. The second, whipping them.

"To crucify" mean literally "to stake," that is, to drive a stake into the ground. It is from the Greek word for "stake," though it is often translated as "cross" in the Gospels. The Greek verb refers to driving a stake in the ground and was commonly used to describe building a fence. The phrase often translated as "take up your cross" in the Gospels actually means "pull up your stakes," which could mean either fence posts or the stakes or poles that hold up a tent, which is more the source of the English phrase.

The word translated as "shall arise" means "to arise" or "to awaken," but it is passive, not active, "will be awaken" or "will be raised up." Christ uses two other Greek terms to describe his resurrection. The KJV source uses a different one that the one in today's source, but what ever word he uses, the word is always in the passive. He is raised. He does not raise himself.

Greek Vocabulary: 

καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

παραδώσουσιν (verb 3rd pl fut ind act) "Shall deliver" is from paradidomi, which means "to give over to another", "to transmit", "to hand down", "to grant", "to teach," and "to bestow."

αὐτὸν (adj sg masc acc) "Him" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

τοῖς ἔθνεσιν (noun pl neut dat) "To the gentiles" is from ethnos, which means "a number of people living together", "company", "body of men," "tribe", "a people", "nation," and (later) "foreign, barbarous nations." -- The word translated as "Gentiles" does not mean gentiles or even foreigners. Its primary meaning is "a group of people living together," a nation, a tribe, or a cast of people. Later it came to mean "barbarous nations" similar to our idea of ethnic people. It is in the same form as the "them" above, so "to them" or "for them."

εἰς Untranslated is eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

τὸ (article sg neut acc) ἐμπαῖξαι (verb aor inf act) "To Mock" is from empaizo, which means "to mock" and "to sport in." In the passive, it means "to be deluded," and "to be defrauded" of the revenues,

καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also."

μαστιγῶσαι (verb aor inf act) "Scourge" is from mastigoo, which means "to whip" and "to flog."

καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

σταυρῶσαι, (verb aor inf act) "To crucify" is from stauroo, which means "to stake", "to crucify," "to be fenced with poles" or "piles driven into a foundation." From the root,staros, which means "an upright pole or stake." This term was used for a stake (or "pale") used for impaling and with the Christian era, the cross.

καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

τῇ τρίτῃ (adj sg fem dat) "Third" is from tritos. which is the Greek word for "third" meanig both the third in an order and the fraction one third.

ἡμέρᾳ (noun sg fem dat) "Day" is from hemera, which, as a noun, means "day" "a state or time of life", "a time (poetic)", "day break" and "day time." It is also and also has a second meaning, of "quiet", "tame (animals)", "cultivated (crops)," and "civilized (people)."

ἐγερθήσεται. (verb 3rd sg fut ind pass) "He shall rise" from egeiro, which means "to awaken", "to stir up," and "to rouse." -

Wordplay: 

The word translated as "shall arise" means to arise or to awaken. 

Related Verses: