Mark 10:34 And they shall mock him...

KJV Verse: 

Mark 10:34 And they shall mock him, and shall scourge him, and shall spit upon him, and shall kill him: and the third day he shall rise again.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

And he is going to be mocked to him and spit onto him and scourge him and they are going to kill and within three days he is going to raise himself up.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

There are a couple of interesting aspects to this verse that distinguish it from similar verses.

First, the first few verbs, "mock," "spit upon," and "scourge," are ambiguous in terms of tense and possibility. They could be a prediction of the future (the future tense) or a possible future (the subjunctive mood). It isn't until the "kill" verb that the future is being discussed for certain. This acts as a surprise that clarifies what has gone before. However, the verb for the resurrection return again to an ambiguous form. Jesus could have avoided this ambiguity by using another verb to describe the resurrection as he does in Matthew 20:19.

Then, we have the "they shall mock him" clause, but it isn't an active verb in a plural form. It is passive in a singular form so "he is going to be mocked." They odd thing is that it is followed by a singular pronoun in a form that is usually an indicated object so the sense is "to him" or perhaps "to his face."

Next, the prediction about three days is different here than version in Matthew and Luke. They say that the resurrection happens on "the third day." The KjV translates this verse the same, but Mark's Greek uses a preposition that is untranslated in the KJV and says "within three days," which is easier to understand.

Finally, the "he shall rise" is again in the form that could be the future tense or something that might happen.  It is also in a middle voice, which means this is something that he does to himself. In other places, the Gospels have this idea in the passive, something that is done to Jesus. 

 

KJV Analysis: 

And -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

they -- There is no plural pronoun here so this seems to indicate a third-person plural verb, but the verb is singular and passive.

shall -- This seems to indicate a future tense verb, but the KJV version also uses it to indicate something possible, a "might." In this case, the form fo the verbs could be either.

mock -- "Mock" is an uncommon (for Jesus) verb that means "to mock" and "to sport in." In the passive as it is here, it also means "to be deluded," and "to be defrauded" of the revenues.  In the Greek, this verb comes after the one

him, -- The word "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English, but it is not in the form of an object. It is in a form that is most commonly an indirect object, "to him." The sense seems to be that he is being mocked to himself.  The form of this word requires that addition of a preposition in English to capture its meaning, a "to" as an indirect object, a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, and an "in" for area of affect.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

shall -- This seems to indicate a future tense verb, but the KJV version also uses it to indicate something possible, a "might." In this case, the form of the verbs could be either.

scourge -- "Scourge" is an uncommon verb for Jesus that means "to whip" and "to flog."

him, -- The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

shall -- This seems to indicate a future tense verb, but the KJV version also uses it to indicate something possible, a "might." In this case, the form of the verbs could be either.

spit upon "Spit upon" is another uncommon verb for Jesus that means "spit into" and "spit onto." In the Greek, this verb comes before, not after, the "scourge" verb.

him, -- The word "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English, but it is not in the form of an object. It is in a form that is most commonly an indirect object, "to him." This is because the prefix of this verb is a preposition that normally takes an object in the form of an indirect object.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

shall -- This is the first verb where the form is clearly the future tense, making this a true prophecy.

kill -- "Kill" is translated from a Greek word that means "destroy" more than just "kill" because the base word means "slay." The Greek source has the sense of "kill off," that is, destroy in a more thorough way. 

him: -- The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

untranslated -- The untranslated preposition is the Greek word that usually means "with" or a related concept such as "among" or "by the means of". It also refers to "after" or "behind" when referring to a place, time, or pursuit.

the -- This word does not exist in the Greek.

third -- This word is not the adjective"third,"  form of the word, but the word from describing the numeral three. 

day - -- The Greek word translated as "day" also means "time," in general, and refers specifically to the "daytime." However, the form is plural, "days."

he -- This is from the third-person singular form of the verb.

shall -- This seems to indicate a future tense verb, but the KJV version also uses it to indicate something possible, a "might." In this case, the form of the verbs could be either.

rise -- "Rise " is a Greek verb that means "to make to stand up", "to raise from the dead", "to rouse to action," and "to make people rise up."  It is in the middle form so "raise himself.:

again. -- There is no "again" in the Greek.

 

Greek Vocabulary: 

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

ἐμπαίξουσιν [uncommon]( verb 3rd sg fut-ind/aor-subj pass ) "They shall mock" is from empaizo, which means "to mock" and "to sport in." In the passive, it means "to be deluded," and "to be defrauded" of the revenues,

αὐτῷ (adj sg masc dat) "Him" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἐμπτύσουσιν [uncommon] ( verb 3rd pl fut-ind/aor-subj act ) "Shall spit upon" is emptyo, which means "spit into" and "spit onto."

αὐτῷ (adj sg masc dat) "Him" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." -

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

μαστιγώσουσιν [uncommon] ( verb 3rd pl fut-ind/aor-subj act ) "Scourge" is from mastigoo, which means "to whip" and "to flog."

αὐτὸν (adj sg masc acc) "Him" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." -

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἀποκτενοῦσιν, ( verb 3rd pl fut ind act ) "Put...to death" is apokteino, which means "to kill," and "to slay." It combines the word for "to slay" (kteino) with the proposition, apo, indicating separation, meaning "from" or "away from," but it is a stronger form than the normal verb kteino. It is more like our "destroy." It is in the form of a present participle, "destroying" acting as a noun ("those destroying").

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

μετὰ (prep) Untranslated is meta, which means "with", "in the midst of", "among", "between", "in common", "along with", "by the aid of", "in one's dealings with", "into the middle of", "coming into", "in pursuit of", "after", "behind", "according to,"  "after", "behind",  and "next afterward."

τρεῖς ( numeral pl fem acc ) "Three" is from treis, which means the number three.

ἡμέρας ( noun pl fem acc ) "Days" is hemera, which, as a noun, means "day" "a state or time of life", "a time (poetic)", "day break" and "day time." It is also and also has a second meaning, of "quiet", "tame (animals)", "cultivated (crops)," and "civilized (people)."

ἀναστήσεται. (verb 3rd sg fut-ind/aor-subj mid) "He shall rise" is from anistemi, which means "to make stand up", "to raise up", "to raise from sleep", "to wake up", "to raise from the dead", "to rouse to action", "to put up for sale", "to make people rise", "to emigrate", "to transplant," and "to rise and leave the sanctuary."

Related Verses: 

Possible Symbolic Meaning: 

Again, we see the pattern of three plus one but now applied to Jesus fate. There are three temporal forms of torture, one from each of the realms of life (physical, intellectual, emotional).  Mocking is intellectual torture (words). Scourging is the physical torture (the body). Spitting upon him is the emotional/social torture (rejection). Killing takes torture into the spiritual realm, but that final action is reversed by Christ rising again.

Oct 19 2019