Matthew 19:28 ...That you who have followed me,

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

I teach you truly that you, the ones following me in the rebirth, when the child of humanity sits down on his chair of recognition, you will drop yourselves down on twelve judge's benches, judging the twelve clans of Israel.

KJV : 

Matthew 19:28 Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

 At the center here is the meaning of the word "throne." There are two different verbs translated as "sit" here, that have a very different meanings. One means "sit" and the other means "drop yourselves down."  The two words  sound alike, but the first is more formal with a sense of honor while the second has the sense of sitting someone down to put them to work. There is a humorous contrast here between the honor Jesus will get and the fact that though the apostles are going to be put to work.

NIV : 

Matthew 19:28 Truly I tell you, at the renewal of all things, when the Son of Man sits on his glorious throne, you who have followed me will also sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

NLT : 

Matthew 19:28 I assure you that when the world is made new and the Son of Man sits upon his glorious throne, you who have been my followers will also sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

Wordplay: 

The two words used here "sit down" and "to let fall" sound alike, but the first is more formal with a sense of honor while the second is causal, in the sense that we talk about sitting someone down to put them to work. There is a humorous contrast here between the honor Jesus will get and the fact that though the apostles will be like him, they are going to be put to work. 

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Ἀμὴν (adv) "Verily" is from amen, which is from the Hebrew, meaning "truly", "of a truth," and "so be it." It has no history in Greek before the NT.

λέγω (1st sg pres ind act) "I tell" is from llego means "pick up", "choose for oneself", "pick out," and "count," "recount", "tell over", "say", "speak", "teach", "mean", "boast of", "tell of", "recite," "nominate," and "command."

ὑμῖν (pron 2nd pl dat) "You" is from humin, which is the plural forms of su the pronoun of the second person, "you."

ὅτι (adv/conj) "That" is from hoti, which introduces a statement of fact "with regard to the fact that", "seeing that," and acts as a causal adverb meaning "for what", "because", "since," and "wherefore."

ὑμεῖς (pron 2nd pl nom) "Ye" is hymeis (humeis), which are the singular nominative form of the second person, "you."

οἱ (article pl masc nom) "Which" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἀκολουθήσαντές (part pl aor act masc nom) "Have followed" is from akoloutheo, which means "to follow," and "to go with." It also means "to be guided by" and means following a leader as a disciple. -

μοι "Me" is from emoi, which is 1st person,singular dative pronoun meaning "me' as the indirect object of a verb.

ἐν "In" is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with". -- The word translated as "in" that means "within", "with," or "among."

τῇ (article) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

παλινγενεσίᾳ, (noun sg fem dat) "Regeneration" is from paliggenesia, which means "rebirth", "regeneration", "beginning of a new life", "restoration (of world)," and "reincarnation (of a person)."

ὅταν (adv) "When" is from hotan, which means "whenever (as a condition)," and "since (as a cause)."

καθίσῃ (verb 3rd sg aor subj act) "Shall sit" is from kathizo, which means "to make sit down", "to seat", "to place", "to sit", "to post", "to take seats", "to convene", "to appoint", "to establish", "to put in a certain condition", "to reside", "to sink down", "to run aground [for ships]," "to recline at meals," and "to settle." From the Greek kata ("down") hedraios ("to settle") .

(article sg masc nom) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." 

υἱὸς (noun sg masc nom)"The Son" is from huios, which means a "son," and more generally, a "child." -- The word translated as "son" more generally means "child."

τοῦ (article sg masc gen) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἀνθρώπου (noun sg masc gen) "Of man" is from anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate. -- The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural.

ἐπὶ (prep) "In" is from epi. which means "on", "upon", "at", "by", "before", "across," and "against."

θρόνου (noun sg masc gen) "Throne" is from thronos, which means "seat", "chair", "seat of state", "chair of a teacher," and "judge's bench."

δόξης (noun sg fem gen) "Glory" is from doxa, which means "expectation", "notion", "opinion", "repute," and "popular repute." Translations as "glory" or "splendor" are applied to external appearances but are found primarily in translating the Bible. The words "recognition" and "reputation" come closest to capturing the way Christ uses the word, especially if we consider how he uses the verb form.

αὐτοῦ, (adj sg masc gen) "His" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

καθήσεσθε (verb 2nd pl fut ind mid) "Shall sit" is from kathinmi, which means to "let fall", "drop", "send down", "pour down", "run down (of rivers)," in a general sense, "set in motion," "employ," "allow to return from exile," "swoop down (like a wind)" and, in the passive, "to be put in motion." It it a general term that has a number of specialized meanings.

καὶ (conj) "Also" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -

ὑμεῖς (pron 2nd pl nom) "Ye" is from hymeis (humeis), which are the singular nominative form of the second person, "you."

ἐπὶ (prep) "In" is from epi. which means "on", "upon", "at", "by", "before", "across," and "against." -- The word translated as "unto" means "against", "before", "by" or "on."

δώδεκα (number) "Twelve" is from dodeka, which is the number "twelve," and a noun meaning "a group of twelve."

θρόνους (noun pl masc acc) "Thrones" is from thronos, which means "seat", "chair", "seat of state", "chair of a teacher," and "judge's bench."

κρίνοντες (part pl pres act masc nom) "Judging" is from krino, which primarily means "to separate", "to put asunder," and "to distinguish." It has a lot of other secondary meanings, including "to pick out", "to choose", "to decide" disputes or accounts, "to win" a battle, "to judge" especially in the sense of "estimate", "to expound," or "to interpret" in a particular way.

τὰς (article pl fem acc) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

δώδεκα (number) "Twelve" is from dodeka, which is the number "twelve," and a noun meaning "a group of twelve."

φυλὰς (noun pl fem acc) "Tribes" is from phyle, which means "tribe", "a group related by birth or location", "clan," and, of things, a "class" or "kind."

τοῦ (article sg masc gen) "Of" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

Ἰσραήλ. (noun sg masc gen) "Israel" is from Israel, which means "Israel." -- The word translated as "Israel" comes from the Hebrew, not the Greek.

KJV Analysis: 

Verily -- The word translated as "verily" is from the Hebrew word that means "truly" or "certainly," but it sounds like the Greek word with the same meaning. In Greek, the word also means "to reap." See this article discussing this "amen phrase."

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the following verb.

say -- The word translated as "say" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak," but it also means "to teach," which seems to be the way Christ uses it more frequently. It also has many ancillary meanings such as "to count" ("to number" or like we might say, "to recount" a story) or "to choose for yourself." Christ usually uses this word to refer to his own speaking or teaching.

unto -- This word "tuo" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use: a "to" as an indirect object.

you,  -- The Greek pronoun "you" here is plural and in the form of an indirect object, "to you", "for you", etc.

That -- The word translated as "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause.

ye -- The pronoun is used explicitly as the subject of the sentence. Since it is already part of the verb, its use creates emphasis on the "you." The "you" here is plural, indicating many of Christ's listeners.

which -- The word translated as "which" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

have  -- (WT) This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action competed in the past. This is not the tense of the verbs here.

followed --  (WF) The term "which have followed" is from a verb that means "to follow," or "go with," in a physical sense, but it is also a metaphor meaning "to be guided by" or "to follow the meaning of." It is in the form of an adjective, "following," used as noun, "the ones following."

me,  -- The "me" is in the indirect object form on the first-person pronoun, so usually "to me", though the form has other uses in Greek. 

in -- The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

regeneration -- "Regeneration" is from a noun that means "rebirth", "regeneration", "beginning of a new life", "restoration," and "reincarnation." The can mean anything from the reincarnation of a person to the rebirth of an age or world.

when  -- The Greek word translated as "when" introduces a phrase that explains a certain condition so "whenever" or "since."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Son -- The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense is "the child of the man." The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant". The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

man - The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples". 

shall  -- (CW) This helping verb "shall" does not indicate the future tense, but that the verb describes a possibility, the subjunctive voice. A "might" or "should" in English is more appropriate, but is assumed in an "if" phrase. Helping verbs are not needed in Greek since the main verb carries this information in its form.

sit -- "Sit" is from the common verb that means "to make sit down", "to place,""to convene", "take one's seat," and "to reside." It starts with the prefix meaning "down." It is not in the future tense, but something that takes place at an unspecified time. This is also indicated by the "when" starting this section.

in -- (WW) The second word translated as "in" is different than the one above and doesn't mean "in" but "against", "before", "by" or "on."

the -- (IW) There is no Greek word that can be translated as "the" in the Greek source.

throne -- "Throne" is translated from a Greek word that is the source of our word for "throne" but it means "seat", "chair", "seat of state", "chair of a teacher," and "judge's bench." It didn't have the association with royalty like our word does. It did have a formal sense like were refer to having a "seat at the table" or, more specifically, a "seat in congress." Here, its meaning is specified as a "seat of honor."

of  -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English, usually and "of."

his -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

glory, -- "Glory" is from a noun that which means "expectation", "notion", "opinion", "vision", "repute", "good repute", "honor," and "glory." It is often used by Jesus to mean "recognition." Here, the idea is clearly to define the chair as a "seat of honor."

ye -- The pronoun is used explicitly as the subject of the sentence. Since it is already part of the verb, its use creates emphasis on the "you." The "you" here is plural, indicating many of Christ's listeners.

also -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

shall  -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

sit -- (WW) The second "shall sit" is a very different word than the one above. It means "to let fall" or "to drop," but it has a lot of casual uses such putting things in motion and employing them. It, like the "sit" above begins with the prefix meaning "down." This word is in the future tense and in a form that indicates the subject, the apostles, acting on themselves.

untranslated "by/for yourself"-- (MW) An untranslated phrase is necessary because the form of the word is a middle voice, which means that the subject is to  act "for yourself" or "pray by yourself."

upon -- The second word translated as "upon" is the same as the second "in" above and means "upon," "against", "before", "by" or "on."

twelve -- "Twelve" is the Greek word for the number.

thrones, -- The "thrones" is the same word as above, but here the sense of the word becomes the judge's bench because, it is followed by the word "judging."

judging - "Judging" is from a verb that which means "separate", "distinguish", "pick out", "choose," 'decide", "decide in favor of", "determine," and "form a judgment."  Unlike most words, which Christ uses specifically, he uses this word in a variety of senses simply because no English word corresponds to it precisely. He can mean "judge", "criticize", "decide", "discriminate," and "separate," depending on the context.  He the use of the word meaning a "judge's bench" makes the meaning clearly "judging" " since the form is an adjective.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

twelve --  "Twelve" is the Greek word for the number.

tribes "Tribes" is from the noun that means "a race", "a tribe", "people with ties of descent", "representatives of a tribe," and "the military contingent of a tribe.

of -- The word translated as "of" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." Here it is used to give the following Hebrew word a Greek case.  The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English. 

Israel. -- "Israel" is from the Hebrew word.

KJV Translation Issues: 

8
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "hath" seems to indicate an action completed in the past, but the tense is something happening at a point in time past, present, or future.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "followed" is not an active verb but a participle, "following."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "shall" does not mean the future tense. It should be "might."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "in" means "upon."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "the" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "sit" means "drop down."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "by/for yourselves" is not shown in the English translation.

NIV Analysis: 

Truly -- The word translated as "truly" is from the Hebrew word that means "truly" or "certainly," but it sounds like the Greek word with the same meaning. In Greek, the word also means "to reap." See this article discussing this "amen phrase."

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the following verb.

tell -- The word translated as "say" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak," but it also means "to teach," which seems to be the way Christ uses it more frequently. It also has many ancillary meanings such as "to count" ("to number" or like we might say, "to recount" a story) or "to choose for yourself." Christ usually uses this word to refer to his own speaking or teaching.

you,  -- The Greek pronoun "you" here is plural and in the form of an indirect object, "to you", "for you", etc.

untranslated "that"-- (MW) The untranslated word "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause.

at-- The word translated as "at"means "in", "at", "by", "within", "with," or "among."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.

regeneration "Regeneration" is from a noun that means "rebirth", "regeneration", "beginning of a new life", "restoration," and "reincarnation." The can mean anything from the reincarnation of a person to the rebirth of an age or world.

of all things,   -- (IP) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "of all things, " in the Greek source.

when  -- The Greek word translated as "when" introduces a phrase that explains a certain condition so "whenever" or "since."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Son -- The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense is "the child of the man." The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant". The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

man - The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples".

sits -- "Sits" is from the common verb that means "to make sit down", "to place,""to convene", "take one's seat," and "to reside." It starts with the prefix meaning "down." It is not in the future tense, but something that takes place at an unspecified time. This is also indicated by the "when" starting this section.

on -- The second word translated as "on" is different than the one above and doesn't mean "in" but "against", "before", "by" or "on."

his -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

glorious -- "Glory" is from a noun that which means "expectation", "notion", "opinion", "vision", "repute", "good repute", "honor," and "glory." It is often used by Jesus to mean "recognition." Here, the idea is clearly to define the chair as a "seat of honor."

throne -- "Throne" is translated from a Greek word that is the source of our word for "throne" but it means "seat", "chair", "seat of state", "chair of a teacher," and "judge's bench." It didn't have the association with royalty like our word does. It did have a formal sense like were refer to having a "seat at the table" or, more specifically, a "seat in congress." Here, its meaning is specified as a "seat of honor."

you -- The pronoun is used explicitly as the subject of the sentence. Since it is already part of the verb, its use creates emphasis on the "you." The "you" here is plural, indicating many of Christ's listeners.

who -- The word translated as "who" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

have  -- (WT) This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action competed in the past. This is not the tense of the verbs here.

followed --  (WF) The term "which have followed" is from a verb that means "to follow," or "go with," in a physical sense, but it is also a metaphor meaning "to be guided by" or "to follow the meaning of." It is in the form of an adjective, "following," used as noun, "the ones following."

me,  -- The "me" is in the indirect object form on the first-person pronoun, so usually "to me", though the form has other uses in Greek.

will -- This helping verb "will " indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

also -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

sit -- (WW) The second "shall sit" is a very different word than the one above. It means "to let fall" or "to drop," but it has a lot of casual uses such putting things in motion and employing them. It, like the "sit" above begins with the prefix meaning "down." This word is in the future tense and in a form that indicates the subject, the apostles, acting on themselves.

untranslated "by/for yourself"-- (MW) An untranslated phrase is necessary because the form of the word is a middle voice, which means that the subject is to  act "for yourself" or "pray by yourself."

on -- The second word translated as "on" is the same as the "on" above and means "upon," "against", "before", "by" or "on."

twelve -- "Twelve" is the Greek word for the number.

thrones, -- The "thrones" is the same word as above, but here the sense of the word becomes the judge's bench because, it is followed by the word "judging."

judging - "Judging" is from a verb that which means "separate", "distinguish", "pick out", "choose," 'decide", "decide in favor of", "determine," and "form a judgment."  Unlike most words, which Christ uses specifically, he uses this word in a variety of senses simply because no English word corresponds to it precisely. He can mean "judge", "criticize", "decide", "discriminate," and "separate," depending on the context.  He the use of the word meaning a "judge's bench" makes the meaning clearly "judging" " since the form is an adjective.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

twelve --  "Twelve" is the Greek word for the number.

tribes "Tribes" is from the noun that means "a race", "a tribe", "people with ties of descent", "representatives of a tribe," and "the military contingent of a tribe.

of -- The word translated as "of" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." Here it is used to give the following Hebrew word a Greek case.  The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English. 

Israel. -- "Israel" is from the Hebrew word.

NIV Translation Issues: 

7
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "that" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IP - Inserted phrase-- The phrase "of all things," doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "have" seems to indicate an action completed in the past, but the tense is something happening at a point in time past, present, or future.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "followed" is not an active verb but a participle, "following."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "sit" means "drop down."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "by/for yourselves" is not shown in the English translation.

NLT Analysis: 

untranslated "truly"-- (MW) The untranslated word "truly" is from the Hebrew word that means "truly" or "certainly," but it sounds like the Greek word with the same meaning. In Greek, the word also means "to reap." See this article discussing this "amen phrase."

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the following verb.

assure -- The word translated as "assure" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak," but it also means "to teach," which seems to be the way Christ uses it more frequently. It also has many ancillary meanings such as "to count" ("to number" or like we might say, "to recount" a story) or "to choose for yourself." Christ usually uses this word to refer to his own speaking or teaching.

you,  -- The Greek pronoun "you" here is plural and in the form of an indirect object, "to you", "for you", etc.

that --  The word "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause.

untranslated "at "-- (MW) The untranslated word "at" means "in", "at", "by", "within", "with," or "among."

when  -- The Greek word translated as "when" introduces a phrase that explains a certain condition so "whenever" or "since."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.

world  -- (IW) There is no Greek word that can be translated as "world" in the Greek source.

is made new -- (WF) "Made new" is from a noun that means "rebirth", "regeneration", "beginning of a new life", "restoration," and "reincarnation." The can mean anything from the reincarnation of a person to the rebirth of an age or world. This word is a noun, not a verb.

and -- (IW) There is no Greek word that can be translated as "and" in the Greek source.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Son -- The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense is "the child of the man." The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant". The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

man - The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples".

sits -- "Sits" is from the common verb that means "to make sit down", "to place,""to convene", "take one's seat," and "to reside." It starts with the prefix meaning "down." It is not in the future tense, but something that takes place at an unspecified time. This is also indicated by the "when" starting this section.

on -- The second word translated as "on" is different than the one above and doesn't mean "in" but "against", "before", "by" or "on."

his -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

glorious -- "Glory" is from a noun that which means "expectation", "notion", "opinion", "vision", "repute", "good repute", "honor," and "glory." It is often used by Jesus to mean "recognition." Here, the idea is clearly to define the chair as a "seat of honor."

throne -- "Throne" is translated from a Greek word that is the source of our word for "throne" but it means "seat", "chair", "seat of state", "chair of a teacher," and "judge's bench." It didn't have the association with royalty like our word does. It did have a formal sense like were refer to having a "seat at the table" or, more specifically, a "seat in congress." Here, its meaning is specified as a "seat of honor."

you -- The pronoun is used explicitly as the subject of the sentence. Since it is already part of the verb, its use creates emphasis on the "you." The "you" here is plural, indicating many of Christ's listeners.

who -- The word translated as "who" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.

have  -- (WT) This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action competed in the past. This is not the tense of the verbs here.

been -- (IW) There is no Greek word that can be translated as "been" in the Greek source.

my,  --  (WF) The "my" is in the indirect object form on the first-person pronoun, so usually "to me", though the form has other uses in Greek. This word is an indirect object not a possessive pronoun.

followers --  (WF) The term "which have followed" is from a verb that means "to follow," or "go with," in a physical sense, but it is also a metaphor meaning "to be guided by" or "to follow the meaning of." It is in the form of an adjective, "following," used as noun, "the ones following." It is not an adjective. 

will -- This helping verb "will " indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

also -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

sit -- (WW) The second "shall sit" is a very different word than the one above. It means "to let fall" or "to drop," but it has a lot of casual uses such putting things in motion and employing them. It, like the "sit" above begins with the prefix meaning "down." This word is in the future tense and in a form that indicates the subject, the apostles, acting on themselves.

untranslated "by/for yourself"-- (MW) An untranslated phrase is necessary because the form of the word is a middle voice, which means that the subject is to  act "for yourself" or "pray by yourself."

on -- The second word translated as "on" is the same as the "on" above and means "upon," "against", "before", "by" or "on."

twelve -- "Twelve" is the Greek word for the number.

thrones, -- The "thrones" is the same word as above, but here the sense of the word becomes the judge's bench because, it is followed by the word "judging."

judging - "Judging" is from a verb that which means "separate", "distinguish", "pick out", "choose," 'decide", "decide in favor of", "determine," and "form a judgment."  Unlike most words, which Christ uses specifically, he uses this word in a variety of senses simply because no English word corresponds to it precisely. He can mean "judge", "criticize", "decide", "discriminate," and "separate," depending on the context.  He the use of the word meaning a "judge's bench" makes the meaning clearly "judging" " since the form is an adjective.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

twelve --  "Twelve" is the Greek word for the number.

tribes "Tribes" is from the noun that means "a race", "a tribe", "people with ties of descent", "representatives of a tribe," and "the military contingent of a tribe.

of -- The word translated as "of" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." Here it is used to give the following Hebrew word a Greek case.  The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English. 

Israel. -- "Israel" is from the Hebrew word.

NLT Translation Issues: 

12
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "truly" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "at" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "world" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "is made new" is not an verb phrase but a noun, "rebirth."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "and" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "have" seems to indicate an action completed in the past, but the tense is something happening at a point in time past, present, or future.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "been" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "my" is not possessive but an object "me."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "followers" is not a noun but a participle, "following."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "sit" means "drop down."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "by/for yourselves" is not shown in the English translation.

The Spoken Version: 

I really teach you because you are my follower. In our rebirth, when the child of humanity takes his seat of honor, you are going to plop yourselves down on twelve benches, setting in motion the judgment of the twelve families of Israel.

Front Page Date: 

Feb 9 2020