Mark 2:26 How he went into the house of God...

KJV Verse: 

Mark 2:26 How he went into the house of God in the days of Abiathar the high priest, and did eat the shew bread, which is not lawful to eat but for the priests, and gave also to them which were with him?

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

How he showed up in the house of the Divine during Abiathar, a chief priest, and the loaves of public display ate, which not is lawful to eat if not those priests and he gave also to them along with him being.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

 In most modern translations, the bread here is described as "sacred" or "consecrated", but the Greek word describing it means that it was "for show." The parallel verses in Luke 6:4 and Matthew 12:4 are phrased differently but communicate the same idea. The phrase "in the days of Abiathar, the high priest" is the source of the dispute about a"mistake" in this verse, but this is largely an artifact of loose translation. Ahimelech was the high priest when David took the bread from the temple, but the verse doesn't say "the high priest" but "a high priest, which indicates that there was more than one. Abiathar was Ahimelech’s son, likely living at the time and possibly a high priest as well, who was later the high priest. (Read this article for history of the issue.)  

KJV Analysis: 

 How: The word translated as "how" here means "as" or "when". The Matthew 12:4 Greek does start with the Greek word usually translated as "how" to this translation makes them seem more similar. This word does not appear in all Greek versions. 

he went: "He went" is a word that means "go or come into" and has the double meaning of "coming into one's mind." In Matthew, the same word in the same form is translated as "entered". 

into: The word translated as "into" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

the: This is the Greek definate article.

house: The Greek word translated as "house," is any dwelling place but not exclusively a separate house. It means the household or clan that lives in the building as well.

of: This preposition is added because of the form of the following two words. 

NOTE: The definite article appears herein the Greek but is not translated.

God: The word translated as "of God" means "God" and "deity." It is introduced with an article, so "the God" or "the Divine". Christ often uses it this way perhaps to indicate the one God as opposed to the pagan gods.

in the days of: The word translated as "in the days of " means "against", "before", "during", "by" or "on." Translating as "during" requires a word referring to time.  The meaning could well be "before" or "against" but it likely means "during."

Abiathar: This is the name of the high priest written in Greek letters.

the: This definate article does not appear here. 

high priest: The Greek word translated as "the high priest" does not have an article ("the"), which it would have to have if the references was to the one and only "high priest".

and:  The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

did eat: The word translated as "eat" means "eat" and "devour" but it also means "fret," as we say "something is eating me up."

the: This is the Greek definite article.

shew:  The word for "shew" is a noun that means "placing in public", "public notice," or "offering." It a[ears after the word for "bread" so the sense is "loaves of offering" and refers to the twelve loaves representing the twelve tribes of Israel that was set out before the sanctuary for a week every week.

bread,:  The word translated as "bread" means "small loaf or cake of bread". It is more like a slice of bread today.

which: The word translated as "who" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the ones that") introducing a dependent clause. Here, the form means it refers to the "bread" not the "those" with him.  

is ...lawful: "It is...lawful" is a verb that  means "it is possible" and "it is allowed." It generally refers to something within someone's power, or, in this case with the negative, something outside of someone's power.

not: The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence to captures the same idea.

to eat: The word translated as "to eat" means "eat" and is the same word as above but in the form of an indinitive.

but for: The "but" here is two words meaning "if not," which is best translated as "except". 

the priests: The word translated a "the priests" is the noun that we translated as "priest" or "sacrificer" but it is also the noun form of the verb meaning "to consecrate" or "to dedicate" so "the ones consecrating" or "the ones dedicating." This word is in the form of an object so the "is lawful" is assumed act on it.

and:  The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

gave: The verb translated as "gave" means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe." It is almost always translated as some form of "give."

also: The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

to: This "to" comes from the case of the following word.

them: "Them" is the Greek definite article, which without a noun means "the ones" or "those." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

which: There is no "which" in the Greek.

were: The verb here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. However, it is not an active verb, but in the form of an adverb, "being." The form matches the "them" above.

with: This word comes from and uncommon prepositon meaning "along with", "in company with", "together with", "together", of things "attached to", as an instrument "by means of". This word appears commonly as a prefix in verbs and nouns meaning "together."

him; The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." 

 

 

Greek Vocabulary: 

[πῶς] (adv) "How" is hos, an adverb which means to "thus", "as", "how", "when", "where", "like", "just as", "so far as", "as much as can be", "that", "in order that", "nearly (with numbers)," and "know that." -- The word translated as "as" has a very broad meaning, translating as "how", "when", "where", "just as", "like," and related words.

εἰσῆλθεν  (3rd sg aor ind act ) "He went into" is from eiserchomai which means both "to go into", "to come in", "to enter", "to enter an office", "to enter a charge," (as in court) and "to come into one's mind."

εἰς  (perp) "Into" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)," "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)," "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)," "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

τὸν οἶκον (noun sg masc acc) "House" is from oikos, which means "house", "dwelling place", "room", "home", "meeting hall," "household goods", "substance," and "ruling family." It is any dwelling place but not exclusively a separate house.

τοῦ θεοῦ (noun sg masc gen) "Of God" is from theos, which means "God," the Deity."

ἐπὶ (prep) "In the days of" is epi, which means "on", "upon", "at", "by", "before", "across," "during", and "against."

Ἀβιάθαρ (proper noun) "Abiathar" is the Greek spelling of a name. Abiathar was Ahimelech’s son.

ἀρχιερέως (noun sg masc gen) "The high priest" is from archiereus (archiereus), which means "arch-priest" and "chief priest."

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

τοὺς ἄρτους (noun pl masc acc) "The ...bread" is from artos, which means specifically a "cake of whole wheat bread," and generally "loaf," and "bread." It was smaller than loaves today, more like a bread roll.

τῆς προθέσεως”  (noun sg fem gen ) "Shew..." is prothesis, which means "placing in public", "public notice", "offering", "purpose", "end proposed", "goodwill", "supposition", "calculation", "prefixing", "placing first," and, in grammar, "preposition."

ἔφαγεν, (verb 3rd sg aor ind act) "Eat" is from esthio, which means "to eat", "devour", "consume", "fret", "vex," and to "take in one's mouth." It is also a metaphor for decay and erosion.

οὓς  (pron pl masc acc) "Which" is hos, which means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings. -- The word translated as "who" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause..

οὐκ  (partic) "Not" is from ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both singles words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective.

ἔξεστιν (verb 3rd sg pres ind act) "It is lawful" is exesti, which means "to be allowed", "is possible," and, in the passive, "to be in one's power."

φαγεῖν (aor inf act) "To eat" is from esthio, which means "to eat", "devour", "consume", "fret", "vex," and to "take in one's mouth." It is also a metaphor for decay and erosion.

εἰ μὴ (conj-part) "But" is from ei me, which is the conjunction that means "if not", "but," and "except." εἰis the particle use with the imperative usually to express conditions "if" or indirect questions, "whether." The negative (me) is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no."

τοὺς ἱερεῖς,  (noun pl masc acc  ) "Priests" is hiereus, which means a "priest", "sacrificer", "diviner" and is a metaphor for a "minister." It is also a verb meaning "to consecrate" or "to dedicated" in the form of a present participle so "the ones consecrating" or "the ones dedicating."

καὶ (prep) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἔδωκεν  (verb 3rd sg aor ind act) "Gave" is didomi, which means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe." -- The verb translated as "given" means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe." It is almost always translated as some form of "give."

καὶ (adv) "Also" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

τοῖς (article pl masc dat )"To them" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one"or , in the plural, "they."

σὺν [uncommon](prep) "With" is from syn, which means "along with", "in company with", "together with", "together", of things "attached to", as an instrument "by means of".

αὐτῷ (adj sg masc dat) "Him" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself," "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

οὖσιν;  (part pl pres act masc dat) "To them which were" is eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.") -- When the verb "to be" appears early in the sentence before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are."

Related Verses: 

May 26 2019