Mark 13:14 But when you shall see the abomination of desolation,

KJV Verse: 

Mark 13:14 But when you shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not, (let him that readeth understand,) then let them that be in Judaea flee to the mountains:

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

When, however, you see this rot of this destruction having been raised up where it is not needed, the one recognizing must know.  Then the ones in this Judea must flee into the mountains.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The first part of this verse seems a condense version of Matthew 24:15.  The second part is the same as Matthew 24:16.  Matthew also seems to have more verses that seem to relate to this statement.

word "standing" has a wealth of meanings (see below), but the sense here is that the rotten and despoiled are being raised up and somehow praised. This means that people start seeing some kind of value in what is worthless, raising up filth and destruction as good things. When this happens, it means things are about to fall apart. Those that recognize what is happening need to head for the hills.

KJV Analysis: 

But -- The Greek word translated as "but" means "but", "however", and "on the other hand". Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. 

when -- The Greek word translated as "when" introduces a phrase that explains a certain condition so "whenever" or "since."

you  -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the following verb.

shall -- This helping verb seems to indicate that the following verb is the future tense but it isn't. That verb is hte present tense.

see -- The verb translated as "see" means "to see" but it is used like we use the word "see" to mean "to know" or "to perceive."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

abomination "Abomination" is translated from a Greek word appears first in Septuagint, the Greek OT, but it doesn't appear elsewhere in Greek writings, except, of course, in the NT and religious writing after Christ. It is translated consistently as "abomination," but a related noun means "sickness", "nausea," "filth," and "nastiness." The verb form means "to feel loathing for food", "to make a stink," and "to make loathsome." The most common word of this root word is the adjective that means "disgusting" and "loathsome." In the source reference, Dan 12:11, the Hebrew word means "detestable things", "idol", "impure clothing," and "flesh of victims." The root means "to contaminate," and "to pollute."

of -- This word comes from the genitive case of the following word(s) that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns. 

untranslated -- The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

desolation, "Desolation" is from a Greek word that means "making desolate," the idea of being stripped bare" and being abandoned or deserted. It is in the possessive form. It too is from the Septuagint, but it appears elsewhere in Greek literature. Here, the Hebrew source word means "to be desolate", "to be deflowered," "to stun", "to be appalled", "to devastate", "to ravage", "to cause horror," and "to cause oneself ruin." When Christ refers to the "desert" or "wilderness" he uses the noun form of this word.

spoken of by Daniel the prophet, -- There is no Greek words that can be translated as "spoken of by Daniel the prophet" in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used. It appears in the Greek of Matthew 24:15 but not here.

standing -- The Greek word translated as "stand" means "to stand up" "to set up", "to be placed," and "to erect." This word has a sexual connotation that is clearer in Matthew 24:15 because of one of the verses before it.

where -- "Where" is a conjunction/that means "somewhere", "anywhere", "wherever," and "where."

it -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the following verb.

ought -- The Greek verb translated as "ought" is a special verb that means  "it is needful," and "there is a need." It is always singular referring to a specific moment in the past, present, or future. It works something like our word "must" but its form is fixed. So there is no "you" in this verb, just necessity itself. 

not, -- The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence to captures the same idea.

(let -- This "let" is the helping verb used to translated the Greek form of the third-person command for the verb translated as "understand." In English all commands are in the second-person. This form is used something like our word "must."

him -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the following verb.

that -- The word translated as "that" is the Greek definite article, "the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." Here it appearss before an verbal adjective. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

readeth -- "He who readeth" is from a verb that means "to know well", "to know certainly", and "to recognize". Christ usually uses this word when referring to biblical references.

understand,) "Let...understand" is from another verb that means "to observe", "to perceive by the eyes", "to perceive by the mind", "to think", and "to reflect",. This is another word Christ uses only when referring to OT references. It is in a form of third person command we don't have in English, that is usually translated as "let..." and then the command. We would just say in the second person, "Reflect" or "ponder."

then -- The word translated as "then" means "at that time" when referencing a specific time or "then" in the continuation of a story.

let -- This "let" is the helping verb used to translated the Greek form of the third-person command of "flee." In English all commands are in the second-person. This form is used something like our word "must."

them -- -- The word translated as "them" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

that be  -- There is no Greek words that can be translated as "that be" in the source we use today nor was there one in the source that the KJV translators used. It was added for clarity.

in -- The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among." With the accusative, it means "into," "on," and "for."

Judaea "Judea" is translated from a Greek word that means "a Jew", "Jewish", "Judea," or "Jewish." Judea represents civilization.

flee "Flee" is translated from a Greek word that means "to flee", "escape," and "to take flight." It is in the form of a third person command, which isn't used in English. We would typically use the second person command instead or say that someone "must" do these things.

to The word translated as "into" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

mountains: The word translated as "mountain" means "mountain" or "hill" but for those raised in Egypt, as Christ was, it also means "desert." In the forms that Christ uses when talking about "moving mountains," it could be a homonym that means "mule" but the form here, with the article, could only mean "mountains."

 

 

 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Ὅταν (adv/conj) "When" is from hotan, which means "whenever (as a condition)," and "since (as a cause)."

δὲ (conj/adv) "But" is de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

ἴδητε ( verb 2nd pl pres ind act ) "Shall see" is eido which means "to see", "to examine", "to perceive", "to behold", "to know how to do", "to see with the mind's eye," and "to know."

τὸ (article sg neut acc) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

βδέλυγμα ( noun sg neut acc )  [2 times](noun sg neut acc)"Abomination" is from bdelygma , which means "abomination," but this word appears only in the NT. A related word, bdelugmia, means "sickness", "nausea," "filth," and "nastiness." The verb form, bdelussomai, means "to feel loathing for food", "to make stink," and "to make loathsome." The most common word of this base is the adjective, bdeluros, which means "disgusting" and "loathsome." In the source reference, Dan 12:11, the Hebrew word is shiqquwts, which means "detestable things", "idol", "impure clothing," and "flesh of victims." The root, shaqats, means "to contaminate," and "to pollute."

τῆς (article sg fem gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἐρημώσεως” [3 times](noun sg fem gen) "Desolation" is erêmôsis, which means "making desolate." It is from erêm, which means "to strip bare", "desolate", "to lay waste", "to abandon", "to desert" "to bereave," and "to be left without." The Hebrew source is shamem, which means "to be desolate", "to stun", "to be appalled", "to devastate", "to ravage", "to cause horror," and "to cause oneself ruin." Christ uses the noun form, eremos, that is translated as "desert" or "wilderness."

ἑστηκότα (part pl perf act neut nom) "Standing" is histemi, which means "to make to stand", "to stand", "to set up", "to bring to a standstill", "to check", "to appoint", "to establish", "to fix by agreement", "to be placed", "to be set", "to stand still", "to stand firm", "to set upright", "to erected", "to arise," and "to place." Like the English words "put" and "set," it has a number of specific meanings from "to put down [in writing]", "to bury", "to establish", "to make", "to cause," and "to assign."

ὅπου  (adv/conj) "Where" is hopou, which means "somewhere", "anywhere", "wherever," and "where."

οὐ (partic) "Not" is ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective.

δεῖ, ( verb 3rd sg imperf ind act ) "Ought" is from, dei, which means "needful," and "there is need."

(article sg masc nom) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἀναγινώσκων (part sg pres act masc nom) "Him who readeth" is from anaginosko, which means "to recognize", "to know well", "to know certainly", "to know again", "to own," and "to acknowledge."

νοείτω, (verb 3rd sg pres imperat act) "Let... understand" is from noeo, means specifically "to perceive with the mind", "apprehend", "think out, "devise", "consider," (of words) "bear a certain sense," and "reflect."

τότε (adv) "Then" is tote, which means "at that time" and "then." -- The Greek word for "then" means "at this time" or "then". 

οἱ (article pl masc nom) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἐν (prep) "In" is en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".With the accusative, it means "into," "on," and "for." 

 τῇ (article sg fem dat) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Ἰουδαίᾳ (adj sg fem dat) "Judea" is from Ioudaia, which means "a Jew", "Jewish", "Judea," or "Jewish."

φευγέτωσαν (verb 3rd pl pres imperat) "Let...flee" is pheugo, which means "to flee", "to take flight", "avoid", "escape", "seek to avoid", "to be expelled", "to be driven out", "go into exile", "go into banishment", "to be accused", "to plead in defense," and "to flee from a charge."

εἰς (prep) "Into" is eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

τὰ  (article pl neut acc) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ὄρη, (noun pl neut acc) "The mountains" is from oros, which means "mountain", "hill", "canton," and "parish." In Egypt, it was also used to mean the "desert" and a place of burial. It's homonym means a "boundary", "landmark", "time limits", "decisions of judges", "memorial stones and pillars," "standard", "measure", "term (in logic)", "definition", "terms," and "conditions." Another, similar word, oreus, which matches oros in some forms means "mule."

Related Verses: 

Possible Symbolic Meaning: 

Jesus does not see the end result of all temporary life, becoming rotten and despoiled with time, as a bad thing in itself any more than he see the other physical parts of life, eating and drinking, for example, which are also turned into waste, as bad. However, these aspect of life have their proper place. Spreading fertilizer makes sense in the field but not in the house. Rot and spoiling is needed some places but not others. That is what Jesus is warning us about here.

Front Page Date: 

Dec 19 2019