Luke 21:21 Then let them which are in Judaea flee to the mountains;

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Then those in Judea must flee into the mountains. And those in the middle of it must slip out. And those in those places must not wan to enter into it.

KJV : 

Luke 21:21  Then let them which are in Judaea flee to the mountains; and let them which are in the midst of it depart out; and let not them that are in the countries enter thereinto.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This entire verse is written as third-party commands and is a good example of why "must" works well in translating such statements instead of "let them". This verse starts the same as Matthew 24:16, but then add more detail not seen in the other versions of this verse. The KJV is more accurate than many more recent translations. Many of them add the idea of fleeing the city here when the verse is clearly about fleeing the nation of Judea. The verse also has a unique word, as so much of Luke does.

The word translated as "then" means "at that time" when referencing a specific time or "then" in the continuation of a story.

The word translated as "them which are" is from the Greek article, "the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among."

"Judaea" is translated from a Greek word that means "a Jew", "Jewish", "Judea," or "Jewish." Judea represents civilization.

"Flee" is translated from a Greek word that means "to flee", "escape," and "to take flight." It is in the form of a third person command, which isn't used in English. We would typically use the second person command instead or say that someone "must" do these things.

The word translated as "into" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

The word translated as "mountain" means "mountain" or "hill" but for those raised in Egypt, as Christ was, it also means "desert." In the forms that Christ uses when talking about "moving mountains," it could be a homonym that means "mule" but the form here, with the article, could only mean "mountains."

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

The word translated as "them which are" is from the Greek article, "the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among."

The word translated as "the midst" generally means "middle" but has a lot of special meanings with different prepositions. One of those with the "in" is "offer for competition" and "middle point." It also means "difference."

The word translated as "it" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English. It clearly refers to the country here, but in other Bibles is taken to mean the city.

"Depart out" is  a unique word for Jesus which means  "depart", "slip out", "give way", and "cede". The literal sense of "slip out" seems light-hearted given the context. This is probably why Jesus uses it. It is in the form of a third person command, which isn't used in English. We would typically use the second person command instead or say that someone "must" do these things.

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

The word translated as "them which are" is from the Greek article, "the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among."

The word translated as "countries" is uncommon. The word means "a place", "a spot" and "a landed estate".  This word is not used in Mark or Matthew, but it is used in John and  Luke 15:13 where it is translated as "country".  However, the basic idea of "places" works here, referring to the mountains and where those in the middle of the country slip out to.

The negative "not" used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion, commands, and requests. The sense is that "you don't want" to do something, not that it isn't done or don't think something that might be true. If it wasn't done or wasn't true, the objective negative of fact would be used.

"Enter" is a word that means "go or come into" and has the double meaning of "coming into one's mind." It is in the form of a third person command, which isn't used in English. We would typically use the second person command instead or say that someone "must" do these things.

"Thereinto" is two Greek words that mean "into it." The word translated as "unto" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure. The word translated as "it" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." 

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

τότε "Then" is from tote, which means "at that time" and "then."-- The word translated as "then" means "at that time" when referencing a specific time or "then" in the continuation of a story.

οἱ (article pl masc nom) "Them which are" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἐν  (prep) "In" is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".

τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ (adj sg fem dat) "Judaea" is from Ioudaia, which means "a Jew", "Jewish", "Judea," or "Jewish."

φευγέτωσαν (verb 3rd pl pres imperat) "Let...flee" is pheugo, which means "to flee", "to take flight", "avoid", "escape", "seek to avoid", "to be expelled", "to be driven out", "go into exile", "go into banishment", "to be accused", "to plead in defense," and "to flee from a charge."

εἰς "Into" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

τὰ ὄρη, (noun pl neut acc) "The mountains" is from oros, which means "mountain", "hill", "canton," and "parish." In Egypt, it was also used to mean the "desert" and a place of burial. It's homonym means a "boundary", "landmark", "time limits", "decisions of judges", "memorial stones and pillars," "standard", "measure", "term (in logic)", "definition", "terms," and "conditions." Another, similar word, oreus, which matches oros in some forms means "mule."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

οἱ (article pl masc nom) "Them which are" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἐν (prep) "In" is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with". -- The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among."

μέσῳ () "The midst" is mesos, which means "middle", "middle point", "midway between", "offered for competition", "deposited," "by the middle", "by the waist", "impartial", "inter-mediate", "indeterminate", "things indifferent (neither good nor bad)", "middling", "moderate", "midst", "intervening space", "intervening", "difference", "in a moderate degree", "in the mean," and "equator."

αὐτῆς (adj sg fem gen) "Of it"  is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." --

ἐκχωρείτωσαν, [unique]( verb 3rd pl pres imperat act ) "Depart out" is  ekchōreō, which means  "depart", "slip out", "give way", and "cede".

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

οἱ (article pl masc nom) "Them that are" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἐν (prep) "In" is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".

ταῖς χώραις [uncommon](noun pl fem dat) "Countries" is from chora, which means "space", "the spot in a room where a thing is", "place", "spot", "the position", "the proper place for a thing or person", "land," and "landed estate." It is a metaphor for "station", "place" or "position," in society. 

μὴ (partic) "Not" is me , which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective.

εἰσερχέσθωσαν ( verb 3rd pl pres imperat mp ) "Enter" is eiserchomai which means both "to go into", "to come in", "to enter", "to enter an office", "to enter a charge," (as in court) and "to come into one's mind." --

εἰς (prep) "-Into" is eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)." --

αὐτήν, (adj sg fem acc) "there-"  is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

Front Page Date: 

Jan 9 2019