Luke 12:48 But he that knew not, and did commit things worthy of stripes,

KJV Verse: 

Luke 12:48 But he that knew not, and did commit things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few stripes. For unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall be much required: and to whom men have committed much, of him they will ask the more.

Greek Verse: 

ὁ δὲ μὴ γνούς ποιήσας δὲ ἄξια πληγῶν δαρήσεται ὀλίγας παντὶ δὲ ᾧ ἐδόθη πολύ πολὺ ζητηθήσεται παρ’ αὐτοῦκαὶ ᾧ παρέθεντο πολύ περισσότερον αἰτήσουσιν αὐτόν (NOTE: Perseus database is not showing this verse so links are missing until corrected.) 

Literal Alternative: 

The one, however, not knowing? Acting, however, worthy of blows? He is going to be flogged a few. To each, however, to whom he has given much, he has much desired from him and to whom they have themselves provided much more they are going to ask him. 

Hidden Meaning: 

This is an interesting verse, illustrating how difficult it is to get at Jesus's words from the English translation and why "bible" oriented tools are misleading. The key word here, translated as "much" three times here is in a form that can be either the subject or the object of the verb. Twice it is translated as a subject and ones as an object, but it could be translated many different ways such as "To whom he has given much, much will be required." 

Also we can see here where the same Greek word, meaning "but" or "however", is translated into three different English words "but", "and", and "for" despite the fact that two very different Greek words are usually translated as "and" and "for". 

The Greek word translated as "but" means "but", "however", and "on the other hand". Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. 

The word translated as "he" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause.

"That knew" is a verb that means "to know", "to recognize", "make known", "to know carnally," and "to learn to know". It is in the form of an adjective, "knowing" or, more precisely, "learning to know". 

The "not" negative used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion. The sense is that "you don't want" to do something or didn't think something.

The Greek word translated as "and" means "but", "however", and "on the other hand". Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.  It appears after the "did" below.

The Greek word translated as "did" has the primary meaning of "making" or producing" something or "causing" or "rendering" as service. It describes a productive action.  It is not as broad a word as the English "do", which covers all actions, productive or not. Here, "acting" works best. 

The word translated here as "things worthy" means "counterbalancing." It is the idea of weighing the same as something of equal value. From this comes the idea of "being worthy" or "due," not from inherent worth but because you give value for equal value. It is not plural ("things") but singular. It could be either an adjective or a noun. 

"Of stripes" is from a Greek noun meaning "a blow" or "a strike", "stroke" by lightning, "impression" on the ears or eyes, and "beat" of the pulse.

The Greek verb translated as "shall be beaten" means "to flay" or "to skin" someone, though in later use it came to mean "to cudgel" or "to thrash." Jesus seems to use it to mean being "flogged", which was more in keeping with the punishments of the time. 

The Greek adjective translated as "few" means "little", "small", "slight", "few," and "weak."  It is plural and its form matches the "stripes" above. The sense is "a few". 

There is no word, "stripes", appearing here in the source. 

The Greek word translated as "for" means "but", "however", and "on the other hand". Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. 

The "unto whosoever" is from two Greek words meaning "to all that". The "to" is from teh form of the words, which are indirect objects. The  "all" is the Greek adjective meaning "all", "the whole", "every," and similar ideas. When it is used as a noun, we would say "everything." The word "that" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that") that often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause.

The word translated as "much" means many in number, great in power or worth, and large in size. It could be either the subject or the object of the verb. 

The verb translated as "is given" means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe." It is almost always translated as some form of "give."

The word translated as "much" here is the same as above and means many in number, great in power or worth, and large in size. In the Greek, the two words appear in a row. They are both the subject of their verbs, one before and one after.  It could be either the subject or the object of the verb. 

The Greek verb translated as "is required" means "inquire for", "search for", "seek after", "desire", and "feel the want of." It is usually translated as "seek" in the NT. Jesus often uses it in the sense of "aim" when it is active. Here, however, it is passive. 

In the source we use today a "from him" appears here. "From" is from a preposition primarily means "besides". "from", and "beyond." It also has a number of specialized meanings. The "him" is the standard adjective meaning "the same". 

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." 

The word translated as "to whom" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause. It is singular. 

There is no "men" here. The following verb, however, is plural so a "they" could work. 

The Greek verb translated as "have committed" means "place beside", freq. of meals, "set before", "serve up", and generally, "provide", "furnish". It is an active verb where the subjects (it is plural) act on, by, or for themselves, "they have themselves served". 

The word translated as "much" means many in number, great in power or worth, and large in size. Here it is an object where above it was translated as the subject, but neutral nouns have the same form as subjects and objects. 

The word translated as "of him" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English, but it has a few shades of meaning our pronouns do not have.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective, and when used as a pronoun can mean "the true self" as opposed to appearances.

The verb "they will ask" has shades of meaning from "demand" to "claim."

"The more" is a Greek adjective  that means "more than" when applied to quantities, but has a variety of meanings, both positive and negative, when applied to people, from "extraordinary" and "remarkable" to "excessive." 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vocabulary: 

(pron sg masc nom) "He" is hos, which means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings. --

δὲ (conj/adv) "But" is de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if"). 

μὴ (partic) "Not" is me , which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective. 

γνοὺς (part sg aor act masc nom) "that knew" is ginosko which means "to learn to know", "to know by reflection or observation," and "to perceive." 

ποιήσας (part sg aor act masc nom) "Did" is poieo, which means "to make", "to produce", "to create", "to bring into existence", "to bring about", "to cause", "to render", "to consider", "to prepare", "to make ready," and "to do." 

δὲ (conj/adv) "And" is de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if"). 

ἀξία, (adj sg fem nom) "Things worthy" is from axios, which means "counterbalancing", "weighing as much", "of like value", "worth as much as", "worthy", "goodly", "deserved", "due", "worthy", "estimable", "worthy of", "deserving", "fit", "due," and "as deserved." OR (noun sg fem nom) "Worthy" is from axia, (KJV has the adjective, not the noun), a noun that means "worth", "value", of persons, "reputation", and "dignity", generally, a man's "due", "merit", "deserts", " moral value", an "estimate of a thing's worth", and "opinion."

πληγῶν [uncommon](noun pl fem gen) "Stripes" is from plege which means "a blow" or "a strike", "stroke" by lightning, "impression" on the ears or eyes, and "beat" of the pulse.

δαρήσεται (verb 3rd sg fut ind pass) "Shall be beaten" is from derô (dero), which means "to flay" or "to skin" someone, though in later use it came to mean "to cudgel" or "to thrash." 

ὀλίγas (adj pl fem acc) "With few" is oligos, which means "little", "small", "slight", "few," and "weak." As an adverb it means "a little", "slightly," and "little."

παντὶ (adj sg masc dat) "Unto whosoever" is pas (with hos two words below), which means "all", "the whole", "every", "anyone", "all kinds," and "anything." In the adverbial form, it means "every way", "on every side", "in every way," and "altogether." 

δὲ (conj/adv) "For" is de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

ᾧ (pron sg masc dat) "To whom" is hos, which means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings. --

ἐδόθη (verb 3rd sg aor pass) "Is given" is didomi, which means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe." 

πολύ (adj sg neut nom/acc) "Much" is polus, which means "many (in number)", "great (in size or power or worth)," and "large (of space)." As an adverb, it means "far", "very much", "a great way," and "long." 

πολὺ (adj sg neut nom/acc) "Much" is polus, which means "many (in number)", "great (in size or power or worth)," and "large (of space)." As an adverb, it means "far", "very much", "a great way," and "long." -- The word translated as "many" means many in number, great in power or worth, and large in size.

ζητηθήσεται (verb 3rd sg fut pass) "Required" is zeteo, which means "inquire for", "search for", "seek after", "desire", and "feel the want of." 

παρ’ (prep) Untranslated is para, which means "beside", "from the side of", "from beside,", "from", "issuing from", "near", "by", "with", "along", "past", "beyond", "parallel (geometry)", "like (metaphor)", "a parody of (metaphor)", "precisely at the moment of (time)," and "throughout (time)." --

αὐτοῦ (adj sg masc gen) Untranslated  is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." --

ᾧ (pron sg masc dat) "To whom" is hos, which means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings. --

παρέθεντο [uncommon](verb 3rd pl aor ind mid) "Have committed" is from paratithemi, which means "place beside", freq. of meals, "set before", "serve up", generally, "provide", "furnish", "place upon", "lay before one", "explain", "set before oneself", "have set before one",  "deposit what belongs to one in another's hands", "give in charge", "stake", "hazard", "cite in one's own favour", and "cite as evidence or authority".

πολὺ (adj sg neut nom/acc) "Much" is polus, which means "many (in number)", "great (in size or power or worth)," and "large (of space)." As an adverb, it means "far", "very much", "a great way," and "long."

​περισσότερον (adj sg neut acc comp) "The more" is perissoteros, which is a form of the word perissos, which means "beyond the regular number of size", "out of the common", "extraordinary" "more than sufficient", "superfluous", "useless", "excessive", "extravagant", "over-wise", "over-curious", "abundantly," and "remarkable."

αἰτήσουσιν (verb pl 3rd fut ind) "Asked" is aiteo, which means "to ask", "to demand", "to beg", "to claim," and "to ask for one's own use."

αὐτόν (adj sg masc acc) "Him" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." 

May 3 2018