Matthew 13:25 But while men slept, his enemy

KJV Verse: 

Mat 13:25 But while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went his way.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

However, in the people falling asleep, his hated one started and spread the fake wheat seeds up along the middle of the wheat and departed.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

In reading the Greek, the "enemy" seems less like a person and "the sleeping of humanity" seems more like a metaphor.

The Greek word translated as "but" joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.

The word translated as "while" means "in, ""within", "with," or "among."

The term used for "slept" is a Greek verb which means not just to sleep, but "to lie down in sleep." However, it is in the form of an infinitive, which, when introduced by an article, acts like a noun, therefor, "the sleeping" or "falling asleep."

The word for "men" is in the form of that is normally the object in a sentence but with the verb form above, it becomes the subject, so "the people sleeping." The point of this word is to contrast it with the following "enemy" which apparently does not sleep.

The term, translated as "enemy" means both "hated" and "hateful." As single term it encompasses the idea that someone or something who is hated also becomes something filled with hate.

The word translated as "came" primarily means "to start out." It indicates movement, especially its beginning, without indicating a direction toward or away from anything, so it works either as "come" or "go," but it is more like our phrase "being underway."

The term translated as "tares" is from a weed that grows among wheat crops, a kind of imitation wheat, that had black kernels instead of real wheat when it mature. It comes from a Sumerian word for "wheat."

The word translated as "among" is a very uncommon preposition for Christ to use. Its primary meaning is "up along."

An untranslated word here means "middle" but it is usually translated as "midst" in the NT.

Greek Vocabulary: 

ἐν "Whilei" is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with". --

δὲ "But" is from de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

τῷ (article sg masc/neut dat) "What" is from tis which can mean "someone", "any one", "everyone", "they [indefinite]", "many a one", "whoever", "anyone", "anything", "some sort", "some sort of", "each", "any", "the individual", "such," and so on. In a question, it can mean "who", "why," or "what." -- The Greek word translated as "some" has a lot of uses including . In this case, it is the plural version "anyone", "someone," and "anything." In the plural, it means "some", "they," and "those." -- There word translated as "what" means "anything" or "anyone."

καθεύδειν (verb pres inf act) "Slept" is from katheudô, (katheudo), which means "to lie down to sleep", "to sleep," and "to lie asleep."

τοὺς ἀνθρώπους (noun pl masc acc) "Men" is from anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate. -- The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in plural.

ἦλθεν (verb 3rd sg aor ind act) "Came" is from erchomai, which means "to start, ""to set out", "to come", "to go," and any kind of motion. It means both "to go" on a journey and "to arrive" at a place. --

αὐτοῦ (adj sg masc gen) "His" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

ἐχθρὸς (adj sg masc nom) "Enemy" is from echthros, which means "the hated", "the hateful", "the hostile", "the enemy", "the alienated," and "the hating."

καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἐπέσπειρεν (verb 3rd sg aor ind act) "sowed" is from speirô, which is a verb, that means "to sow seed", "to scatter like seed," and "to beget offspring.

ζιζάνια (noun pl neut acc) The term translated as "tares" is zizanion, which was a weed that grows in wheat, a kind of imitation wheat, that had black kernels instead of real wheat when it mature. It comes from a Sumerian word for "wheat."

ἀνὰ "Among" is from ana, which is a preposition that means, with the genitive: "on board (a ship)," with the dative: "on", "upon," without any notion of motion; with the accusative: of Place: "up", "from bottom to top", "up along," of Time, "throughout," and, metaphorically, "continually in", "in," and "among."

μέσον (adj sg masc acc) Untranslated is from mesos, which means "middle", "middle point", "midway between", "offered for competition", "deposited, ""by the middle", "by the waist", "impartial", "inter-mediate", "indeterminate", "things indifferent (neither good nor bad)", "middling", "moderate", "midst", "intervening space", "intervening", "difference", "in a moderate degree", "in the mean," and "equator."

τοῦ σίτου (noun sg masc gen) "The wheat" is from sitos (sitos), which means "grain", "wheat", "barley", "food made from grain", "bread," and, most generally, "food."

καὶ And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

πῆλθεν. "Went his way" is from aperchomai, which means "to go away, ""to depart from", "to spread abroad," and "to depart from life."

Wordplay: 

The "men falling asleep" is a metaphor for people not being constantly vigilant. 

The word for "came" and "went away" are different forms of the same word that primarily means "to start out." 

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