John 17:5 And now, O Father, glorify thou me

KJV Verse: 

Jhn 17:5 And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the glory which I had with thee before the world was.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

And now you are going to expect me, Father, beside you in reputation, which I maintained in the eyes of the world order, to be beside you.

Hidden Meaning: 

The alternative translation is as close as I can get to a literal translation of the Greek in the normal order of the words.

My main focus is meaning, not grammar, but a couple of key points:

  • The verb for "glorify" is translated in the KJV as 2nd person active imperative, but the verb form and context seems to indicate that it is really a future participle, modifying "Father" (see vocabulary section for specifics). Hence it describes the Father as "going to expect". "Expect", "think", and "suppose" are the primary meaning of the verb.
  • The verb that is translated in the KJV as the final "was", ("before the world was" ) is not in a form of a past tense in the original Greek. It is, as the alternative offers, a present infinitive. The KJV translation was determined by the Latin Vulgate-based Greek. In the Latin, this verb was a past form (imperfect) of the verb "to be" (esset). Unfortunately, all modern translations follow the KJV in their sense of this verb referring to the past. The point being made is theological rather than what Christ said.

The statement Christ is making is very simple: the Father now is expecting the Son to take a place beside Him in people's opinion because Christ maintain God's reputation before of the world. This is, of course, what actually happened.

Wordplay: 

 Plays on different meanings of "para," beside, meaning both physically beside and near in reputation. 

Vocabulary: 

καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

class="greek">νῦν "Now" is from nun (nyn), which means "now", "at the present moment", "at the present time", "just now", "presently," and "as it is."

δόξασόν (part sg fut act masc voc or 2nd sg aor imperat act) "Glorify" is from doxazo (doxazo), which primarily means "to think", "to expect", "to imagine," or "to suppose." Secondarily, it means "to magnify" or "to extol," which is where we get the "glorify" used in the translation.

με "Me" is from eme, which means "I", "me", and "my".

σύ "Thou" is from su (su) which means "you" and "your."

πάτερ Father "Father" is from pater (pater), which means "father", "grandfather", "author", "parent," and "forefathers."

παρὰ "With" is from para (para), which means "beside", "from the side of", "from beside,", "from", "issuing from", "near", "by", "with", "along", "past", "beyond", "parallel (geometry)", "like (metaphor)", "a parody of (metaphor)", "precisely at the moment of (time)," and "throughout (time)."

σεαυτῷ "Thine own self" is from seautou (seatou), which means "of yourself."

τῇ δόξῃ "The glory" is from doxa (meta), which means "expectation", "notion", "opinion", "repute," and "popular repute." Translations as "glory" or "splendor" are applied to external appearances but are found primarily in translating the Bible.

"Which" is from hos (hos), which is the demonstrative pronoun in its various forms (hê, ho, gen. hou, hês, hou, etc. ; dat. pl. hois, hais, hois, etc. gen. hoou). It means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

εἶχον (1st sg imperf ind act) "I had" is from echô (echo), which means "to have", "to hold", "to possess", "to keep", "to have charge of", "to maintain", "to hold fast", "to bear", "to keep close", "to keep safe," and "to have means to do."

πρὸ "Before" is from pros (pros), which means "from (place)", "on the side of", "toward", "before", "in the presence of", "in the eyes of", "before (supplication)", "proceeding from (for effects)", "dependent on", "derivable from", "agreeable,""becoming", "like", "at the point of", "in addition to", "against," and "before."

τὸν κόσμον "The world" is from kosmos, which mean "order", "good order", "ruler", "world order", "universe," and "the world of men." Matthew uses it when Christ is talking about the order in the universe, specifically the order of the world of men, as it is designed to be.

εἶναι (verb pres inf act) "Was" is from eimi (eimi), which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.")

παρὰ "With" is from para (para), which means "beside", "from the side of", "from beside,", "from", "issuing from", "near", "by", "with", "along", "past", "beyond", "parallel (geometry)", "like (metaphor)", "a parody of (metaphor)", "precisely at the moment of (time)," and "throughout (time)."

σοί "The" is from sou (sou) which means "you" and "your."

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