Luke 19:14 But his citizens hated him, and sent a message after him,

KJV Verse: 

Luke 19:14 But his citizens hated him, and sent a message after him, saying, We will not have this man to reign over us.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

Those, however, citizens of his hated him and dispatched a delegation back to him saying "We in fact don't desire this man to be king over us."

Hidden Meaning: 

The negative here is not a negative of opinion despite the fact that it expresses a desire. It is the negative of fact. This part of the story must have been surprising to the listeners. How common was it for the citizens to reject a hereditary ruler? This is emphasized by several uncommon words. This line seems oddly out of place in this story.

The verse starts with an untranslated Greek article, "the," which usually proceeds a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

The Greek word translated as "but" means "but", "however", and "on the other hand". Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. 

The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective.

"Citizens" is from a Greek noun that means "citizen" and "freeman". The Greek word is the source of our word for "politics". 

"Hated" is a Greek verb meaning "to hate."

The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English, the same as above. This word is used a lot in this verse.

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

The "sent" here is a word that means "to send off" and "dispatch." It is the source of our word "apostle."

"A message" is a noun  that means "age", "seniority", "right of the elder", "rank", "dignity", "body of ambassadors", and "intercession". A "delegation" is what we would call an body of ambassadors.

The term translated as "back" means "back" in space but "forward" in time.

The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English. 

The word translated as "saying" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak," but it also means "to teach," which seems to be the way Christ uses it more frequently. It also has many ancillary meanings such as "to count" ("to number" or like we might say, "to recount" a story) or "to choose for yourself." Christ usually uses this word to refer to his own speaking or teaching. This line has little to do with the servants or their sum of money.

The Greek word translated as "will...have" is not the same as the helper verb "will" in English, which primarily expresses the future tense. This verbs primary purpose is to express consent and even a delight in doing something. It means "to consent" and "to be resolved to a purpose". As an participle, it means "willingly" and "gladly".

The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "in fact" to the sentence to captures the same idea.

 "This" is a demonstrative pronoun that means "this", "here", "the nearer," and "the familiar." It has the sense of "this man" when used in the masculine. 

"To reign" is the verb that means to "be king", "rule", and "reign". It is the verb form with the same root as "kingdom" and "king", which are very common, but this word is rare. 

The word translated as "over" means "on", "over", "upon", "against", "before", "after", "during", "by" or "on."

"Us" is the plural object form of the first-personal pronoun.

Vocabulary: 

Οἱ  (article sg masc nom) "Untranslated" is the Greek article, "the," which usually proceeds a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." Here it is separated from its noun by a conjunction. 

δὲ (conj/adv) "But" is de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

πολῖται [uncommon](noun pl masc nom) "Citizens" is polites, which means "citizen" and "freeman".

αὐτοῦ (adj sg masc gen) "His"  is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." 

ἐμίσουν ( verb 3rd pl imperf ind act ) "Hated" is miseo, which means "to hate" and in passive, "to be hated."

αὐτόν,  (adj sg masc acc) "Him" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἀπέστειλαν ( verb 3rd pl aor ind act ) "sent" is apostello, which means "to send off", "to send away," or "to dispatch."

πρεσβείαν [uncommon](noun sg fem acc) "An ambassage" is presbeia which means "age", "seniority", "right of the elder", "rank", "dignity", "body of ambassadors", and "intercession".

ὀπίσω (adv) "After" is from opiso, which means "back", "behind," and "hereafter."

αὐτοῦ (adj sg masc gen) "Him"  is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." -- 

λέγοντες ( part pl pres act masc nom ) "Saying" is lego, which means "to recount", "to tell over", "to say", "to speak", "to teach", "to mean", "boast of", "tell of", "recite," nominate," and "command." It has a secondary meaning "pick out," "choose for oneself", "pick up", "gather", "count," and "recount." A less common word that is spelled the same means "to lay", "to lay asleep" and "to lull asleep."

Οὐ (partic) "Not" is ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective.

θέλομεν ( verb 1st pl pres ind act ) "we will" is thelo, which as a verb means "to be willing (of consent rather than desire)", "to wish", "to ordain", "to decree", "to be resolved to a purpose" "to maintain", "to hold", "to delight in, and "will (too express a future event with inanimate objects)." As a participle, it means "being willing" or, adverbially, "willingly," and "gladly". . --

τοῦτον ( adj sg masc acc ) "This man" is toutou, which is a demonstrative pronoun that means "this", "here", "the nearer," and "the familiar."

βασιλεῦσαι ( verb aor inf act ) "To reign" is basileuo, which means to "be king", "rule", and "reign".

ἐφ᾽ (prep) "Over" is epi, which means "on", "over",  "upon", "at", "by", "before", "across," "after" in position, "during", and "against."

ἡμᾶς. (pro 1st pl acc) "Us" is hemas, which is the plural object form of the first-personal pronoun.

Nov 7 2018