Luke 19:19 And he said likewise to him, Be thou also over five cities.

KJV Verse: 

Luke 19:19 And he said likewise to him, Be thou also over five cities.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

He said, however, also to this one, "Also you yourself above become of five communities."

Hidden Meaning: 

Several surprises here. Jesus draws attention to the fact that this reward is both different and the same by using the "however" and "and" conjunctions together. Jesus also does some interesting things with pronouns that are missed in translation.

The Greek word translated as "and" means "but", "however", and "on the other hand". Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. 

"He said" is from the Greek verb that means "to say" and "to speak" also.

The Greek word translated as "likewise" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). The sense here is "also".

"To him" is a demonstrative pronoun that means "this one", "here", "the nearer," and "the familiar." In the dative form, the adjective is used to indicate who is being talked to, but the sense is "to this one" not just "to him".

The word translated as "be" means "to become," that is, to enter into a new state. In Greek, especially as used by Christ, it is the opposite of "being," which is existence in the current state. In the past, it can mean "is" in the sense of "has become", but here it is in the present and it is a command.

The "thou" here is the pronoun. Since pronouns are not usually used for the subject in Greek because the same information is in the verb form, its use is to accentuate the word like we would say "you yourself".

The Greek word translated as "also" begins what the master says. It is the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). The sense is "also".

The word "over" is from a preposition meaning both "on" and "in front of."  In the earlier verse in the story, Luke 19:17, it was used with a number which gives it the sense of "more than", but here it is separated from the number by the verb, which gives it the sense of "become over" as we would say "take over".

"Five is the number "five" in Greek.

The Greek word for "cities." meant not only a city but a nation, culture, or a society. It worked something like the word "community" today.

 

Wordplay: 

Changing the meaning of "over" from a previous verse by associating it with a verb rather than a number.

Vocabulary: 

εἶπεν ( verb 3rd sg aor ind act ) "He said" is eipon, which means "to speak", "to say", "to recite", "to address", "to mention", "to name", "to proclaim", "to plead", "to promise," and "to offer."

δὲ (conj/adv) "And" is de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if"). -

καὶ (conj/adv) "Likewise" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -

τούτῳ ( adj sg masc dat ) "To him" is toutou, which is a demonstrative pronoun that means "this", "here", "the nearer," and "the familiar."

Καὶ (conj/adv) "Also" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." 

σὺ (pron 2nd sg nom) "Thou" is su which means "you" and "your."

ἐπάνω (adv) "Over" is epano, which is an adverb meaning "above", "on the upper side", "[former] times", "more [of numbers]", "in front of," and "in the presence of."

γίνου ( verb 2nd sg pres imperat mp ) "Be" is ginomai, which means "to become", "to come into being", of things "to be produced," of events "take place", "come to pass", "to be engaged in", math "to be multiplied into", "become one of", "turn into".and "to be." It means changing into a new state of being. It is the complementary opposite of the verb "to be" (eimi)which indicates existence in the same state.

πέντε (number) "Five" is pente, the number five. 

πόλεων. ( noun pl fem gen ) "Cities" is polis, which means "city", "citadel", "one's city", "one's country", "community", "state", "state affairs," and "civic duties." 

Related Verses: 

Nov 12 2018