Mark 13:12 Now the brother shall betray the brother to death...

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

And a brother is going to give up a brother to death. And a father,  a son. And children are going to stand over against ancestors and they are going to put them to death.

KJV : 

Mark 13:12 Now the brother shall betray the brother to death, and the father the son; and children shall rise up against [their] parents, and shall cause them to be put to death.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The word translated as "parents" more generally means "ancestors." In the Gospels, Jesus uses this word  five times and it always translated as "parents" in the KJV, but its meaning as "ancestors" was more relevant given the history of Jesus's people.  The word "father" also means a "forefather", and Jesus often uses it in a way that can only mean those from generations past.

The word translated as "put to death" is only used this and similar verses in other Gospels that use this word "ancestors." Putting dead ancestors to death may seem like an unlikely concept, but as Jesus said a little earlier in Mark 12:27,  their God is not the God of the dead, but of the living. So for Jesus, the forefathers were still living and could be killed by their children.

All the definitive articles "the" in this verse do not occur in the Greek. The sense is that these things happen much more seldom than the English version.

This verse occurs here in Mark and in Luke 21:16  during the last week of Jesus's ministry, but the parallel version occurs in Matthew 10:21 during the first sending out of the apostles at the beginning of his ministry. The sense is that Jesus is reminding the apostles of things he told them earlier. 

NIV : 

Mark 13:12  Brother will betray brother to death, and a father his child. Children will rebel against their parents and have them put to death.

NLT : 

Mark 13:12 A brother will betray his brother to death, a father will betray his own child, and children will rebel against their parents and cause them to be killed.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

καὶ (conj/adj) "Now" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

παραδώσει ( verb 3rd sg fut ind act) "Betray" is paradidomi, which means "to give over to another", "to transmit", "to hand down", "to grant", "to teach," and "to bestow."

ἀδελφὸς ( noun sg masc nom ) "Brother" is from adelphos (adelphos),which means "son of the same mother", "kinsman", "colleague", "associate," and "brother."

ἀδελφὸν ( noun sg masc acc) "Brother" is from adelphos (adelphos),which means "son of the same mother", "kinsman", "colleague", "associate," and "brother."

εἰς (prep) "To" is eis, which means "into (of place),"  "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

θάνατον ( noun sg masc acc )  "Death" is thanatos (thanatos), which means "death" and "a death sentence."

καὶ (conj/adj) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

πατὴρ (noun sg masc nom) "Father" is from pater (pater), which means "father", "grandfather", "author", "parent," and "forefathers."

τέκνον (noun sg neut nom/acc) "Son" is from teknon (teknon), which means "that which is born", "child," and "the young."

καὶ (conj/adj) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἐπαναστήσονται [unique](verb 3rd pl fut ind mid ) "Shall rise" is epianistêmi, which is a combination of  epi, (epi) which means "on", "upon", "at", "by", "before, ""across," and "against." and anistêmi,  which means "to make stand up", "to raise up", "to raise from sleep", "to wake up", "to raise from the dead", "to rouse to action", "to put up for sale", "to make people rise", "to emigrate", "to transplant," and "to rise and leave the sanctuary."

τέκνα (noun pl neut nom/acc) "Children" are from teknon (teknon), which means "that which is born", "child," and "the young."

ἐπὶ (prep) "Against" is epi, which means "on", "over",  "upon", "at", "by", "before", "across," "after" in position, "during", and "against."

γονεῖς [5 verses]( noun pl masc nom ) "Parents" is goneus, which mean "progenitor" and can refer to parents or ancestors.

καὶ (conj/adj) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

θανατώσουσιν [3 verses]( verb 3rd pl fut ind act ) "Shall cause to put to death" is thanatoo, which means "to put to death", "to be made dead (passive)", "to be put to death by sentence of law", "to be fatal," and "to cause death."

αὐτούς:  (adj pl masc acc) "Them" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

KJV Analysis: 

Now  -- (WW) The Greek word translated as "now" was in the KJV source, the Greek word meaning "but", "however", and "on the other hand". But in the source we use today, the Greek word is the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

the  -- (WW) There is no Greek word that is translated as "the" in the source.  There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article "a" can be added in English translation.

brother -- The word translated as "brother" means a biological brother, any kinsmen, and more broadly and friend or associate.  It appears a subject after the verb right before the same word in the form of an object.

shall -- This helping verb indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

betray -- "Betray" is a compound word which literally means "to give over." It is often translated in the KJV as "betray" but it has no real sense of that.

the -- (WW) There is no Greek word that is translated as "the" in the source we use today nor was there one in the source that the KJV translators used.  There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article "a" can be added in English translation.

brother -- The word translated as "brother" means a biological brother, any kinsmen, and more broadly and friend or associate.  This is the same word as above, but in the form of an object.

to -- The word translated as "unto" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" and "as far as" limits in time and measure.

death, -- "Death" is the Greek word meaning "death" generally and the death penalty specifically.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

the -- (WW) There is no Greek word that is translated as "the" in the source.  There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article "a" can be added in English translation.

father -- "Father" is the Greek noun that means "father" or any male ancestor so "forefathers". It is the word that Christ uses to address his own Father. 

the -- (WW) There is no Greek word that is translated as "the" in the source.  There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article "a" can be added in English translation.

son; -- The word translated as "son" means "child" but in the most general sense of "offspring." Christ does not use it to refer specifically to children under seven, which is another term. See this article more about these words for "child."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

children -- The word translated as "children" means "child" but in the most general sense of "offspring." Christ does not use it to refer specifically to children under seven, which is another term. See this article more about these words for "child."

shall -- This helping verb indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

rise up -- "Rise up" is a unique verb used only once Jesus. It is a combination of a prefix that means "on", "upon", "at", "by", "before, ""across," and "against." and a verb that means "to make stand up", "to raise up", "to raise from sleep", "to wake up", "to raise from the dead", "to rouse to action", "to put up for sale", "to make people rise", "to emigrate", "to transplant," and "to rise and leave the sanctuary."

against -- The word translated as "unto" means "on", "over", "upon", "against", "before", "after", "during", "by" or "on."

their  -- There is no Greek word that is translated as "their" in the source we use today nor was there one in the source that the KJV translators used.

parents, -- "Parents" is a word that means "progenitor" and can refer to parents or ancestors.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

shall -- This helping verb indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

cause  "To cause to be ... put to death" is the verb form of the word for "death". It means "to put to death," and "to cause death," but it also means "to mortify."

them -- The word translated as "them" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." 

to be put to death. -- "To cause to be ... put to death" is the verb form of the word for "death". It means "to put to death," and "to cause death," but it also means "to mortify."

KJV Translation Issues: 

5
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "now" means "but."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "the" should be "a."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "the" should be "a."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "the" should be "a."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "the" should be "a."

NIV Analysis: 

untranslated "and"-- (MW) The untranslated word  is the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

Brother -- The word translated as "brother" means a biological brother, any kinsmen, and more broadly and friend or associate.  It appears a subject after the verb right before the same word in the form of an object.Mark 13 12 Now the brother shall betray the brother to death...   Christ's Words.html

will -- This helping verb indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

betray -- "Betray" is a compound word which literally means "to give over." It is often translated in the KJV as "betray" but it has no real sense of that.

brother --  The word translated as "brother" means a biological brother, any kinsmen, and more broadly and friend or associate.  This is the same word as above, but in the form of an object.

to -- The word translated as "unto" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" and "as far as" limits in time and measure.

death, -- "Death" is the Greek word meaning "death" generally and the death penalty specifically.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

father -- "Father" is the Greek noun that means "father" or any male ancestor so "forefathers". It is the word that Christ uses to address his own Father. 

his  -- (WW) There is no Greek word that is translated as "his" in the source.  There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article "a" can be added in English translation.

child; -- The word translated as "son" means "child" but in the most general sense of "offspring." Christ does not use it to refer specifically to children under seven, which is another term. See this article more about these words for "child."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

Children -- The word translated as "children" means "child" but in the most general sense of "offspring." Christ does not use it to refer specifically to children under seven, which is another term. See this article more about these words for "child."

will -- This helping verb indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

rebel  -- "Rebel" is a unique verb used only once Jesus. It is a combination of a prefix that means "on", "upon", "at", "by", "before, ""across," and "against." and a verb that means "to make stand up", "to raise up", "to raise from sleep", "to wake up", "to raise from the dead", "to rouse to action", "to put up for sale", "to make people rise", "to emigrate", "to transplant," and "to rise and leave the sanctuary."

against -- The word translated as "unto" means "on", "over", "upon", "against", "before", "after", "during", "by" or "on."

their  -- There is no Greek word that is translated as "their" in the source we use today nor was there one in the source that the KJV translators used.

parents, -- "Parents" is a word that means "progenitor" and can refer to parents or ancestors.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

have -- This helping verb indicates that the following verb is a cause. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

them -- The word translated as "them" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

put to death. -- "Put to death" is the verb form of the word for "death". It means "to put to death," and "to cause death," but it also means "to mortify."

NIV Translation Issues: 

2
  • MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "his" means "a."

NLT Analysis: 

untranslated "and"-- (MW) The untranslated word  is the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

A -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

brother -- The word translated as "brother" means a biological brother, any kinsmen, and more broadly and friend or associate.  It appears a subject after the verb right before the same word in the form of an object.Mark 13 12 Now the brother shall betray the brother to death...   Christ's Words.html

will -- This helping verb indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

betray -- "Betray" is a compound word which literally means "to give over." It is often translated in the KJV as "betray" but it has no real sense of that.

his  -- (WW) There is no Greek word that is translated as "his" in the source.  There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article "a" can be added in English translation.

brother --  The word translated as "brother" means a biological brother, any kinsmen, and more broadly and friend or associate.  This is the same word as above, but in the form of an object.

to -- The word translated as "unto" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" and "as far as" limits in time and measure.

death, -- "Death" is the Greek word meaning "death" generally and the death penalty specifically.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

father -- "Father" is the Greek noun that means "father" or any male ancestor so "forefathers". It is the word that Christ uses to address his own Father. 

will betray -- (IP) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "eill betray" in the Greek source.

his  -- (WW) There is no Greek word that is translated as "his" in the source.  There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article "a" can be added in English translation.

own - (IW) There is no Greek word that can be translated as "own" in the Greek source.

child; -- The word translated as "child" means "son" and  "child" but in the most general sense of "offspring." Christ does not use it to refer specifically to children under seven, which is another term. See this article more about these words for "child."

and --  The untranslated word "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

Children -- The word translated as "children" means "child" but in the most general sense of "offspring." Christ does not use it to refer specifically to children under seven, which is another term. See this article more about these words for "child."

will -- This helping verb indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

rebel  -- "Rebel" is a unique verb used only once Jesus. It is a combination of a prefix that means "on", "upon", "at", "by", "before, ""across," and "against." and a verb that means "to make stand up", "to raise up", "to raise from sleep", "to wake up", "to raise from the dead", "to rouse to action", "to put up for sale", "to make people rise", "to emigrate", "to transplant," and "to rise and leave the sanctuary."

against -- The word translated as "unto" means "on", "over", "upon", "against", "before", "after", "during", "by" or "on."

their  --(IW)  There is no Greek word that is translated as "their" in the source.

parents, -- "Parents" is a word that means "progenitor" and can refer to parents or ancestors.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

cause -- This helping verb indicates that the following verb is a cause. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

them -- The word translated as "them" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

to be killed -- This is the verb form of the word for "death". It means "to put to death," and "to cause death," but it also means "to mortify."-- This word is the verb form of the word for "death". It means "to put to death," and "to cause death," but it also means "to mortify.""To cause to be killed" is the verb form of the word for "death". It means "to put to death," and "to cause death," but it also means "to mortify."

NLT Translation Issues: 

6
  • MW - Missing Word -- The conjunction "and" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "his" means "a."
  • IP - Inserted phrase-- The phrase "will betray" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "his" means "a."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "own" doesn't exist in the source.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "their" doesn't exist in the source.

Possible Symbolic Meaning: 

 In Christ's division of life into the physical, mental, and emotional, (Three Plus One: The Pattern of Christ’s Words) family is the symbol for our emotional life.  This emotional relationship (especially in children, the term used here) is often represented as the closest we get on earth to the spiritual. So the division and death here are not just physical but emotional, a separation from what is the most important.

Front Page Date: 

Dec 17 2019