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Luke 14:12 When thou makest a dinner or a supper, call not thy friends,
KJV Verse:

Luke 14:12 When thou makest a dinner or a supper, call not thy friends, nor thy brethren, neither thy kinsmen, nor thy rich neighbours; lest they also bid thee again, and a recompence be made thee.

Greek Verse:

Luke 14:12 Ὅταν ποιῇς ἄριστον  δεῖπνον, μὴ φώνει τοὺς φίλους σου μηδὲ τοὺς ἀδελφούς σου μηδὲτοὺς συγγενεῖς σου μηδὲ γείτονας πλουσίους, μή ποτε καὶ αὐτοὶ ἀντικαλέσωσίν σε καὶ γένηται ἀνταπόδομά σοι.

Literal Alternative:

When you produce a breakfast or lunch don't call those friends of yours nor those family members of yours nor those relatives of yours nor neighbors wealthy not when also they themselves invite you in turn and it becomes a compensation to you. 

Hidden Meaning:

A straight translation of the Greek is almost easier to understand that the KJV version, especially at the end of this verse. It has a couple of unique words, including a couple that are very uncommon in ancient Greek. 

The Greek word translated as "when" introduces a phrase that explains a certain condition so "whenever" or "since."

The Greek word translated as "thou makest" has the primary meaning of "making" or producing" something or "causing" or "rendering" as service. It describes a productive action.  It is not as broad a word as the English "do", which covers all actions, productive or not. 

The word translated as "a dinner" means "breakfast" or "lunch." 

"Or" is translated from a Greek word that means primary "or" but serves as "than" in a comparison.

"Supper" is from a word that means "a meal", "noonday meal," and, generally, "food."

The verb translated as "call"  means "sound", "speech", "call by name", "invite", "voice",  "cry" [of animals], "sounds" [of inanimate objects], and "report." The sense here is "invite", but this is not the word translated as "bade" and "bidden" in  Luke 14:8 and Luke 14:10 which more directly means "call" or "invite". 

The negative "not" used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion. The sense is that "you don't want" to do something, not that it isn't done or don't think something that might be true. If it wasn't done or wasn't true, the objective negative of fact would be used. 

The word translated as "thy" is possessive form of the second person pronoun.

The term translated as "friends" is one of three or four words in Greek for "love". This is usually described as "brotherly love". It is in the form of an adjective used as a noun. 

The word for "nor" is the Greek subjective negative plus the Greek word for "but."

The word translated as "thy" is possessive form of the second person pronoun.

The word translated as "brethren" means a biological brother, any kinsmen, and more broadly and friend or associate.

The word for "nor" is the Greek subjective negative plus the Greek word for "but."

The word translated as "thy" is possessive form of the second person pronoun.

The noun translated as "kinsmen"  "inborn",  "of the same family", "kinsfolk", and "akin."

The word for "nor" is the Greek subjective negative plus the Greek word for "but."

There is no "thy" here. This phrase breaks the pattern intentionally. 

"Rich" is from an adjective that means "rich," and "opulent." It very much has the sense of ostentatiously rich. 

The noun translated as "neighbor" means "neighbor" or "one of like kind". It is not the word translated as "neighbor" in verses like "love thy neighbor". 

"Lest" is two Greek words meaning "not when". The negative used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion. The sense is that "you don't want" to do something, not that it isn't done or don't think something that might be true. If it wasn't done or wasn't true, the objective negative of fact would be used. The "when"  is from an adverb meaning "when", "at what time", "at some time or other", "at some unknown time, and "at some time in the future."

The Greek word translated as "also" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." 

The word translated as "they" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. Since the pronoun is part of the verb ending, it is only used to accentuate the subject as we use "they themselves". 

"Bid...again" if a verb that means  "invite in turn".  It is used uniquely in this verse. It is a form of the verb used in the Luke 14:8 and Luke 14:10 .  This word appears for the first time in ancient Greek in the NT. 

 The word translated as "you" is an objective form of the second person pronoun.

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also."

"Recompence " is another unique word only used by Jesus here that means  "repayment", and "requital,

The word translated as "be made" means "to becomes," that is, to enter into a new state. In Greek, especially as used by Christ, it is the opposite of "being," which is existence in the current state.

The word for "thee" is the indirect object form of the pronoun. 

 

Vocabulary:

Ὅταν (adv/conj) "When" is from hotan, which means "whenever (as a condition)," and "since (as a cause)."

ποιῇς (verb 2nd sg pres subj act) "Thou makest" is poieo, which means "to make", "to produce", "to create", "to bring into existence", "to bring about", "to cause", "to render", "to consider", "to prepare", "to make ready," and "to do." 

ἄριστον [uncommon](noun sg neut acc) "Dinner" is from ariston, which originally meant "breakfast" but later meant "luncheon." -- The word translated as "dinner" means "breakfast" or "lunch."

 (conj/adv) "Or" is which is a particle meaning "either", "or," or "than." 

δεῖπνον,  [uncommon] (noun pl masc dat) "Supper" is from deipnon, which means "a meal", "noonday meal," and, generally, "food." 

μὴ (partic) "Not" is me , which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective. 

φώνει (verb 2nd sg pres imperat act) "Call" is phone, which means "sound", "tone", "call by name",  "invite",  "sound of a voice", "speech", "voice", "utterance", "cry" [of animals], "sounds" [of inanimate objects], "faculty of speech", "phrase", "saying", "rumor," and "report."

τοὺς φίλους (adj pl masc acc) "Friends" is from philos, which as an adjective means "loved", "beloved", "dear", "kith and kin", "nearest and dearest", "friends," and (of things) "welcome" and "pleasant." 

σου (adj sg masc gen) "Thy" is sou which means "of you" and "your." 

μηδὲ (partic) "Neither" is mede, which means "and not", "but not", "nor," and "not." 

τοὺς ἀδελφούς (noun pl masc acc) "Brethren" is adelphos, which means "son of the same mother", "kinsman", "colleague", "associate," and "brother." 

σου (adj sg masc gen) "Thy" is sou which means "of you" and "your."  

μηδὲ (partic) "Neither" is mede, which means "and not", "but not", "nor," and "not." 

τοὺς συγγενεῖς [uncommon](adj pl masc acc contr) "Kinsmen" is syggenes, which means "congenital",  "inborn", "character", "natural,""of the same family", "kinsfolk", "kindred," and "akin." This word is not used in Matthew, appears in Mark only here, and twice in Luke, though in different verses.

σου (adj sg masc gen) "Thy" is sou which means "of you" and "your."  -- The word translated as "thy" is possessive form of the second person pronoun.

μηδὲ (partic) "Neither" is mede, which means "and not", "but not", "nor," and "not." -- The word for "nor" is the Greek subjective negative plus the Greek word for "but."

γείτονας [uncommon](noun pl masc/fem acc) "Neighbors" is geiton, which means "neighbour", "borderer", "from or in the neighbourhood", and "be of like kind". 

πλουσίους, (adj pl masc acc) "Rich" is from plousios, which means "rich," and "opulent." It very much has the sense of ostentatiously rich. 

μή (partic) "Lest" is me (with pote below) , which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective. --

ποτε (adv/conj) "Lest" is pote (with me above), which means "when", "at what time", "at some time or other", "at some unknown time, and "at some time in the future." 

καὶ (conj/adv) "Also" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," "and indeed", "and further", "and so" and "just" 

αὐτοὶ (adj pl masc nom)  "They" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." 

ἀντικαλέσωσίν [unique](verb 3rd pl aor subj act) "Bid...again" is antikaleo, which means  "invite in turn". 

σε  (pron 2nd sg acc) "You" is from se  the second person pronoun. 

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." 

γένηται (verb 3rd sg aor subj mid) "Be made" is ginomai, which means "to become", "to come into being", "to be produced," and "to be." It means changing into a new state of being. It is the complementary opposite of the verb "to be" (eimi)which indicates existence in the same state. 

ἀνταπόδομά [unique](noun sg neut nom/acc) "Recompence " is antapodoma , which means  "repayment", and "requital,

σοι. (pron 2nd sg dat) "You" is soi which is the singular, second person pronoun, "you". -- 

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