Matthew 22:13 Then the king said to the servants,

KJV Verse: 

Mat 22:13 Then said the king to the servants, Bind him hand and foot, and take him away, and cast him into outer darkness; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

The king instructed his servers: Tying his feet and hands, toss him out into the darkness, the outside. In that place, it is going to be the crying and the biting of the teeth [pain of grief].

Hidden Meaning: 

As the story takes a philosophical turn in the previous verse, Mat 22:11 , that tone continues here, ending on one of Christ's statements that are exaggerated for humon.

"King" is translated from a Greek word which means a "king" or "chief."

"Said" is from means "to say" and "to speak" also. However, it has less a sense of teaching and more a sense of addressing and proclaiming.

The word translated here as "servants," actually means "servant." It is not the Greek word usually translated as "servant,"which is used throughout this parable until this point. That words really means "slave." This word is the source for our word "deacon." Its use identifies two groups: a group of slaves that took out the world and a group that takes of servants inside the feast who took care of the problem guest.

"Bind" is from a word that means "to tie", "to bind", "to fetter," and "to keep in bonds." It is a metaphor for chaining. this is the term used earlier for "binding on earth is bound in heaven."

The word translated as "foot" refers to human feet, birds's talons, and trampling things. It is plural not singular.

"Hand" is from a word that means "the hand and arm," and, like "hand" in English, it has a lot of meanings including "an act or deed," :giving aid", "a body of people," and the measurement "handful."

In today's Greek source, there is not phrase "take him away."

"Cast" is from a verb that means "throw out." Depending on the context, it can mean "toss out", "turn out," or "take out." It is usually translated as "cast out" in the NT. The feeling of this word is slightly humorous, as we use the word "toss."

The word translated as "unto" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure. Here, Christ states directly he is taking about a place in the sense of a state of being.

The word translated as "darkness" means "darkness" and "gloom" and it is a metaphor in Greek for ignorance and the nether world. It is introduce with an article "the."

The word translated as "outer" is the adjective that means "more outside," but it is preceded with an article, so it acts as a noun. Here, the sense is outside of the circle of knowledge and light.

The word translated as "there" means "there" or "in that place" but it also means "the intelligible world," that is, the world we understand. It refers to a place much more strongly than our word "there" which can be a simple helper to introduce a verb og being.

When the verb "to be" appears in the future passive and so it is translated as "shall be," but in Greek, it doesn't require the word "there" to mean something like "there will me."

The "weeping" come from a noun form of the verb "weep"which means "to weep", "to cry", "to lament," and "to wail."

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also."

The word translated as "gnashing" which primarily means "biting."

The word translated as "teeth" means tooth but it is a metaphor for the pain of grief.

As I explain in a more detailed post, my sense is that Christ uses the phrase "weeping and gnashing of teeth" in same dramatic and humorous way that that we say in English "whining and complaining" or "bitching and moaning." The "gnashing of teeth" could indicate the chattering of teeth, conveying the sense that this person is tossed out "in the cold," except that Christ uses this same phrase earlier to describe weeds cast into a fire.

Wordplay: 

Tying of hands and feet is symbolic of taking away one's ability to do and move. The "darkness outside"  is a metaphor for an area of ignorance outside of the inner circle of knowledge.  The "gnashing of teeth" phrase captures both the sense of what we call "back biting" among people and the pain of loss. It is one of the exaggeration phrase Christ uses humorously. 

Vocabulary: 

τότε "Then" is from tote, which means "at that time" and "then."

βασιλεὺς (noun sg masc nom) "King" is from basileus, which means a "king", "chief", "prince", "lord", "master", "a great man," and "the first and most distinguished of any class." It is a form of the word used for "kingdom."

εἶπεν (verb 3rd sg aor ind act) "Said" is from eipon, which means "to speak", "to say", "to recite", "to address", "to mention", "to name", "to proclaim", "to plead", "to promise," and "to offer."

τοῖς διακόνοις (noun pl masc dat) "Servants" is from the noun diakonos, which means "servant", "messenger," and "attendant." this is the source for our word "deacon." As a verb, it is from diakoneô, which "to act as a servant", "to minister," and "to perform services."

Δήσαντες (part pl aor act masc nom) "Bind" is deo which means "to bind", "to keep in bonds", "to tie", "to hinder from," and "to fetter. " It is in the form on an adjective, "tying."

αὐτοῦ (adj sg masc gen) "His" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of ones own accord."

πόδας (noun pl masc acc) "Foot" is from pous, which means a "foot", "a talon [of a bird]," and the concept of "to trample" or "to tred upon."

καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

χεῖρας (noun pl fem acc) "Hand" is from cheir (cheir) which means "the hand and arm," and "with the help of agency of another." Like "hand" in English, it has a lot of meanings including "an act or deed", "a body of people," and the measurement "handful."

ἐκβάλετε (verb 2nd pl aor ind act) "Cast" is from ekballo and means "throw out", "cast out of a place,"and "expose." Ek means "out of", "from," and "away from." Ballo is "to throw" or "to scatter." --

αὐτὸν (adj sg masc acc) "Him" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of ones own accord."

εἰς "Into" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

τὸ σκότος (noun sg neut acc) "The darkness" is from skotos, which means "darkness", "gloom", "blindness," and "dizziness." It is a metaphor in Greek for ignorance.

τὸ ἐξώτερον: (adj sg masc acc) "Outer" is from exoteros, which means "outer" and "utter," and literally means "more outside."

ἐκεῖ "Yonder place" is from ekei, which means "there", "in that place," and in philosophy means "the intelligible world." -- "Yonder place" is a word meaning "there", "in that place," and in philosophy means "the intelligible world."

ἔσται (3rd sg fut ind mid) "Shall be" is from eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.")

κλαυθμὸς (noun sg masc nom) "Weeping" is from klauthmos which means "a weeping."

καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

βρυγμὸς (noun sg masc nom) "Gnashing" is from brugmos , which means "biting", "gobbling," and "chattering."

τῶν ὀδόντων. (noun pl masc gen) "Of teeth" is from odous, which means "tooth", "anything pointed", "prong", "spike", "peak," and "tooth [of a saw]." It is a metaphor for the pain of grief.

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