Mat 5:22 ...That whoever is angry with his brother

KJV Verse: 

Mat 5:22 But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

I myself, however, teach you that everyone being irritated by that buddy of his is going to be tied to the choice.
That one, however, who might say to that buddy of his, "rags!" is going to be tied to the court.
That one, however, who might say "moron!" is going to be tied to the trash dump of fire.

Hidden Meaning: 

Long verse, with a lot hidden in translation in it. A lot of hidden meaning is in how the words are changed from the previous verse and within this verse, but those changes do not show in translation. This verse is a run-on sentence in the KJV. Its form would be very different if we think about it as spoken (see this article). Even written, it could be written as three of four separate sentences in English. In Greek, they are "connected" by the Greek word de, which is usually translated as the conjunction "but." This word joins these phrases in an "adversarial" way. In the KJV, we can see no conflict so something is lost in translation. The effect appears to be to entertain. The key to understanding what Christ is doing is to look at the slight changes in each phrase.

The first phrase starts with one of Christ's catch phrases.

The Greek word translated as "but" joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. When used in writing, it creates complex sentences, but when spoken, it makes a good pausing point so that an important or humorous word can follow.

The verse starts with the Greek pronoun "I". Since, as the subject of the sentence, it is part of the verb, its explicit use accentuates who is speaking "I, myself."

The word translated as "say" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak," but it also means "to teach," which seems to be the way Christ uses it more frequently. Christ usually uses this word to refer to his own speaking or teaching. This Greek word rhymes with the Greek word used above meaning "I".

The word translated as "whosoever" is the Greek adjective meaning "all", "the whole", "every," and similar ideas. When it is used as a noun, we would say "everyone." It is not the word translated as "whosoever" in the previous verse, Mat 5:21. This adjective modifies the following words.

The phrase "is angry" is a verb, but it is in the form of an adjective used as a noun. The verb means "to be irritated" and "to be provoked." So the sense is "the one being irritated." Add the previous adjective and it becomes "everyone being irritated." It is in the form where these people do this to themselves.

The word translated as "with...brother" means a biological brother, any kinsmen, and more broadly and friend or associate. The "with" comes from its form as an indirect object. However, given the nature of the previous verb as a verb of "becoming", the sense of "by...brother" works better.

In the Greek sources that we use today, there is no Greek word that can be translated as "without cause".

The phrase "shall be in danger of the judgment" is the nearly same as the previous verse but it is not introduced by the word that indicates a possibility. So this version is more certain.

The "shall be" here is the future form of the verb "to be". It is in the same form as the previous verse, Mat 5:21.

The Greek word translated as "in danger", primarily means being "bound" or "tied" but also has the sense of "obligated" to something.

The Greek word translated as "judgment" has the general meaning of a decision point. However, it also has the meaning of "separating", "choice", "dispute", "event", or "issue". This word is our source of the word "crisis." When referring to the legal proceedings, it means "a trial." However, it is introduced by a definite article, "the trial" but it is difficult to identify a specific "trial" or "judgment" here other than the decision to get angry. The form has a lot of used in the Greek, but it can indicate a purpose, "for the trial" or an instrument, "by the decision."

The next phrase starts in the KJV with an "and" in the KJV, but that word is again the "but" that joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. This phrase is therefore in some way contradicting the previous one.

The phrase actually starts with the Greek word translated as "whosoever", which is a different word that in the first phrase. Here"whosoever" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause. This is not the "all" that was used in the previous phrase, but it was the word using the previous verse.

A Greek word is untranslated in the KJV that means that something "might" happen because it is limited by circumstances. This word was in the previous verse, left out of the first phrase in this verse but added here. The sense is one of referencing the previous occurrence.

"Shall say" is the most common Greek word that means "to say" and "to speak". It is not the word "tell" that begins this verse.

The word translated as "to...brother" means a biological brother, any kinsmen, and more broadly and friend or associate. It is the same word in the same form as the previous verse.

The word "Raca" is an untranslated word from the Greek source whose spelling is slightly changed (from raka to raca). There are two possibilities here. The first possibility is that the word is not in Greek, but an Aramaic insult, meaning "empty" or some other insult, which means Christ spoke here in Aramaic.The second possibility is less confusing. This is a Greek word that means "rags", It is in the proper form to be a name someone is called, matching the "thou fool" in the next phrase. This could also be an insult because clothes indicated status in Christ's society to a much greater degree than ours. Also, "rags" were associated with a woman's menstrual period then as now.

The phrase "shall be in danger of" is the same as the previous phrase.

The "shall be" here is the future form of the verb "to be".

The word translated as "council" simply means "group meeting" but is thought to refer specifically to the synedrion (see wiki article here), which were the civil courts of the period and may also have been the name for a high religious court. However, since this word is "adversarial" to "judgment" or "choice" it could be a play on the idea that high placed people are better dressed and therefore might make fun of someone else's clothes.

There are two possible interpretations of this phrase. One is that the authorities were critical of the word "raca" because it was crude. The other is that criticism of people's status, via dress, was something that the authorities themselves did, judging people based upon their appearance.

The last phrase is again similar the previous one so the changes are the keys to its meaning.

In the KJV, it begins with an "and" in the KJV, but that word is again the "but" that joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. This phrase is therefore in some way contradicting the previous one.

The phrase again actually starts with the Greek word translated as "whosoever", which is a different word that in the first phrase. Here"whosoever" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause. This is not the "all" that was used in the first phrase, but it was the word using the previous phrase.

A Greek word is untranslated in the KJV that means that something "might" happen because it is limited by circumstances. This word was in the previous verse, left out of the first phrase in this verse but added here. The sense is one of referencing the previous occurrence.

"Shall say" is the most common Greek word that means "to say" and "to speak". It is not the word "tell" that begins this verse.

Note that there is no "brother" here, but we can perhaps assume it from the context.

The Greek word translated as "fool" means "dull" and "stupid." This Greek word is the basis for the English word "moron", which technically means a mild mental disability. There is no "thou," that is, no second person pronoun here. It seems to be added to make the context of name-calling clearer. The form of the word can only be that which indicates someone being called by this word.

The phrase "shall be in danger of" is the same as the previous phrase.

The "shall be" here is the future form of the verb "to be".

There is a change here from the previously repeated pattern, the addition of a Greek preposition meaning "into" or "towards".

The word "hell" as the name of an area where a constant fire was kept for disposing of trash from the city. This area was originally where children were sacrificed to Baal, and Baal (Beelzebub, "lord of the flies"), Christ's personification of evil. The point is less metaphysical, than rhetorical. Christ is making a point, but doing it through exaggeration. See this article on the words for "hell".  

"Fire" is a noun means "fire", "sacrificial fire", "funeral fire", and so on, but Christ only uses this word to describe the fire of a trash dump. He usually uses it with the word that is translated as "hell" but which was the name of the burning trash dump outside of Jerusalem. See the end of this article for more.

Wordplay: 

In the series of verses "I say" verses in the Sermon on the mount, Christ repeats the phrase "ego de lego" which is funny both because of the rhyme, but also because it accentuates the "ego." 

Humorously contrasting a series of phrases with each other. 

The Spoken Version: 

The speaker continued in his own light-hearted manner. “I, myself, however,” he said, polishing his fingers on his chest in a mock pompous way, “teach that everyone being irritated by his brother is going to—.” He paused for dramatic effect. “Bind himself by the decision.”
People chuckled.
“Who, however, might possibly say,” he continued lightly, “to that brother of his, ‘you rag’ is going to—.” Another pause. “Bind himself to the court.”

The crowd laughed. The quality of people’s clothing often determined a court’s judgment. To the courts, most of the audience would have been considered the “rags” of society.
“Someone, however,” the speaker continued in a more serious voice, “who might possibly say, ‘you moron!’ He is going to bind himself—. “ He made a tossing-out-the-trash motion. “Into the Gehenna of the fire.” The speaker pretended to shield his face from the flames, but then he held his nose as if something stunk.
Many laughed at the reference to Jerusalem’s smelly dump for burning trash, but some took this threat more seriously because of the speaker’s tone.

Vocabulary: 

Ἐγὼ (pron 1st sg masc nom) "I" is from ego, which is the first person singular pronoun meaning "I". It also means "I at least", "for my part", "indeed," and for myself.

δὲ (partic) "But" is from de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

λέγω (verb 1st sg pres ind act) "Say" is from lego, which means "to recount", "to tell over", "to say", "to speak", "to teach", "to mean", "boast of", "tell of", "recite," nominate," and "command." Another Greek word spelled the same means "to pick up", "to choose for oneself", "to pick out," and "to count."

ὑμῖν (pron 2nd pl dat) "Unto you" is from humin, which is the 2nd person plural dative pronoun. Dative is the case which indicates to whom something is given.

ὅτι (adv/conj) "That" is from hoti, which introduces a statement of fact "with regard to the fact that", "seeing that," and acts as a causal adverb meaning "for what", "because", "since," and "wherefore."

πᾶς (adj sg masc nom) "Whosoever" is from pas, which means "all", "the whole", "every", "anyone", "all kinds," and "anything."

ὀργιζόμενος (part sg pres mp masc nom) "Angry" is from orgizo, which means "to be made angry", "to be provoked to anger," and "to be irritated."

τῷ ἀδελφῷ (noun sg masc dat) "With...brother" is from adelphos,which means "son of the same mother", "kinsman", "colleague", "associate," and "brother."

αὐτοῦ (adj sg masc gen) "His" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of ones own accord."

ἔνοχος (adj sg masc nom) "In danger" is from enochos, which means "held in by", "bound by", "liable to", "subject to", "guilty," and "liable to a penalty for."

ἔσται (3rd sg fut ind mid) "Shall be" is from eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.")

τῇ κρίσει: (noun sg fem dat) "Of the judgment" is from krisis, which means "separating", "distinguishing", "judgment", "choice", "election", "trial", "dispute", "event," and "issue."

ὃς (pron sg masc nom) "Whosoever" is from hos, which is the demonstrative pronoun in its various forms (hê, ho, gen. hou, hês, hou, etc. ; dat. pl. hois, hais, hois, etc. gen. hoou). It means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

δ᾽ (partic) "And" is from de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

ἂν (partic) Untranslated is an, which is a particle used with verbs to indicate that the action is limited by circumstances or defined by conditions. There is no exact equivalent in English, but it is translated as "would have", "might", "should," and "could."

εἴπῃ (3rd sg aor subj act) "Shall say" is from eipon, which means "to speak", "to say", "to recite", "to address", "to mention", "to name", "to proclaim", "to plead", "to promise," and "to offer."

τῷ ἀδελφῷ (noun sg masc dat) "To...brother" is from adelphos, which means "son of the same mother", "kinsman", "colleague", "associate," and "brother."

αὐτοῦ (adj sg masc gen) "His" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of ones own accord."

Ῥακά, "Raka" is a debatable word. It could be an untranslated Aramaic word. It may be from a Hebrew term meaning "empty" or "empty-headed". Others claim it means "I spit on you" in one version of Aramaic. It is agreed to be an expression of contempt. However, it is also a Greek word, rakos (noun pl neut voc), which means "ragged, tattered clothing", that is, "rags."

ἔνοχος (adj sg masc nom) "In danger" is from enochos, which means "held in by", "bound by", "liable to", "subject to", "guilty," and "liable to a penalty for."

ἔσται (3rd sg fut ind mid)"Shall be" is from eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.")

τῷ συνεδρίῳ: (noun sg neut dat) "Of the council" is from synedrion, which means "council", "meeting", "councils of war," and "meeting room."

ὃς (pron sg masc nom) "Whoever" is from hos, which is the demonstrative pronoun in its various forms (hê, ho, gen. hou, hês, hou, etc. ; dat. pl. hois, hais, hois, etc. gen. hoou). It means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

δ᾽ (partic) "And" is from de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

ἂν (partic) Untranslated is an, which is a particle used with verbs to indicate that the action is limited by circumstances or defined by conditions. There is no exact equivalent in English, but it is translated as "would have", "might", "should," and "could."

εἴπῃ (3rd sg aor subj act ) "Shall say" is from eipon, which means "to speak", "to say", "to recite", "to address", "to mention", "to name", "to proclaim", "to plead", "to promise," and "to offer."

Μωρέ, (adj sg masc voc) "Thou fool" is from moros which means "dull", "stupid", "sluggish," 'insipid", "blind," and "folly."

ἔνοχος (adj sg masc nom)"In danger" is from enochos, which means "held in by", "bound by", "liable to", "subject to", "guilty," and "liable to a penalty for."

ἔσται (3rd sg fut ind mid)"Shall be" is from eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.")

εἰς (prep) "Of" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

τὴν γέενναν (noun sg fem acc) "Hell" is geenna, which is Greek for Gehenna, the valley of Hinnom (the Hebrew word), south of Jerusalem where trash, including diseased animals and human corpses was burned. A constant fire was kept burning there. This area was originally where children were sacrificed to Baal, and Baal (Beelzebub, "lord of the flies") is the name that Christ says others call him as the personification of evil.

τοῦ πυρός. (noun sg neut gen) "Fire" is from pyr (pur), which means "fire", "sacrificial fire", "funeral fire", "hearth-fire", "lightning", "the light of torches," and "heat of fever."

Related Verses: 

Jan 18 2017

evidence: 

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