Mar 2:22 And no man puts new wine into old bottles:

KJV Verse: 

Mar 2:22 And no man puts new wine into old bottles: else the new wine bursts the bottles, and the wine is spilled, and the bottles will be marred: but new wine must be put into new bottles.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

And no one tosses wine new into skins old, otherwise it, the wine, will break the skins and the wine destroyed and the skins [but wine new into skins new.]

Hidden Meaning: 

In comparing it to parallel verses in Mar 2:22 and Mat 9:17 , this verse is shorted, coming closer to the Mark version than the Matthew. Like the previous verse, there is a lot of symbolism here comparing two systems of thought. 

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

The Greek word translated as "no man" means "no one" and "nothing" and other negatives nouns. 

The word translated as "puts" has a number of meanings revolving around "throw" as we do in English with both "throw" and "toss." However, it also specifically means "pour" when applied to liquids. A related word was used in the previous verse with the sense of "tossed on".

The Greek word translated as "new" in this verse is the more common word for "new," unlike the word translated as "new" in the previous verse (Luk 5:36) which has many of the same meanings but also means "of a new kind".  

The word translated as "wine" means "wine" or any fermented juice. The Greek word "to drink" also means "to celebrate". Just as clothing is Christ's metaphor for social status and position, wine is Christ's metaphor for ideas affecting the mind, as a drink affecting the mind. The "new wine" here is a parallel to the "patch of unfinished remnant" in  Mat 9:16, a parallel to Luk 5:36.  However, unlike the previous verse where the patch was described negatively, this wine isn't bad. It will, however, get better with age.  "new" does not mean "good" here, but something unfinished. As we say with the "garment" in the previous verse, "wine" is also a connection with the bridegroom and weddings (Luk 5:35). 

The word translated as "into" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction and "up to" limits in time and measure.

The word translated as "old" means old in years both in a good sense and a bad one. In a good sense, it means "venerable" and in a bad sense, "obsolete." It is the same term used to describe the clothing in the last verse. In the previous verse, the reference seems positive because the concern is for preserving the cloak. That is also a concern here: preserving the skins.

The term translated as "bottles" means "skins", and describes the leather containers, wine skins, used for wine used in Christ's time. The problem with updating the terms to bottles is that the analogy not longer works. The word also means "human skin" and is a clear metaphor for the container of ideas: human beings with minds.

New wine skins are more elastic than old ones and can deal with the gas given off by new wine, which hasn't stopped fermenting. New skins can expand. Old ones have already been stretched out and become less pliable. Notice that in the previous verse, the contrast was between old garments and those of a new kind. Here, the contrast is between freshly made wine versus aged wine. 

The English word "else" comes from three Greek words. The first is usually translated as "if." express a condition but it means nothing regarding whether than condition is met or not. The second is usually Greek word translated as "but," and joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. The third is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion. The sense in English is "otherwise". 

The "wine" here does not have the adjective "new" in the Greek. 

The word translated as "will burst" means to "burst" or "break through," in the active form. Since old wineskins are not pliable, they break. The analogy is with older people (skins), who are not pliable so they are broken by new ideas. 

Again, the term translated as "bottles" means "skins, and describes the leather containers, wine skins, used for wine used in Christ's time. The problem with updating the terms to bottles is that the analogy not longer works. Old bottles do not burst like old wineskins do. The word also means "human skin" and is a clear metaphor for the container of philosophy: human beings.

The Greek word translated as "be spilled" means "to pour out," and "spill," but it is a metaphor for "to be forgotten" and to be "overcome with emotion." The use of this word connects the loss of a new idea, the spilling of the new wine, with being overcome by emotions. 

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." It is used in a series here.

Again, the term translated as "bottles" means "skins, and describes the leather containers, wine skins, used as a metaphor here for followers of a philosophy.

The word translated as "will be marred" means to destroy or demolish. Again, the form indicates that they act on themselves, "they destroy themselves". Notice how the loss of these old skins in considered a waste as much as the loss of the new wine. This is different than the previous verse, where the only concern was the cloak. It is translated as "perish" in the parallel verses. 

The last phrase here does not appear in all ancient Greek texts. 

The Greek word translated as "but" denote an exception or simple opposition. "Still" or "however" work well when the word isn't being used as a conjunction, especially when it begins a sentence.

The words translated as "new wine" are exactly the same as those above.

There is no verb "must be put" in the Greek source. 

The word translated as "into" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction and "up to" limits in time and measure.

The word translated as "new" to describe the wine skins is different than that used to describe the wine. Many of their meanings overlap, but this word also means "of a new kind." It is chosen because the wine skins are a metaphor for Christ's followers, who are not just newly made but of a new kind.

Again, the term translated as "bottles" means "skins, and describes the leather containers, wine skins, used as a metaphor here for followers of a philosophy.

Wordplay: 

Christ uses "wine" as a metaphor for mental activity. Here, the "new wine" implies new ideas. 

Wine is also a connection to the bridegroom in the verse before last. 

The word used for "wine skins," but it also means "human skin," representing people who follow a philosophy.
The word translated as "be spilled" also means "to be overcome by emotion" as emotions pours out of people.
The word translated as "new" when applied to wine skins (but not the wine) means "of a new kind", referring to the new followers.

Vocabulary: 

καὶ  (prep) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." 

οὐδεὶς ((adj sg masc nom)  "No man" is oudeis which means "no one", "not one", "nothing", "naught", "good for naught," and "no matter." 

βάλλει (verb 3rd sg pres ind act) "Puts" is from ballo, which means "to throw", "to let fall," "to cast," "to put", "to pour", "to place money on deposit", "push forward or in front [of animals]", "to shed", "to place", "to pay,"to throw [of dice,]" "to be lucky", "to fall", "to lay as foundation", "to begin to form", "to dash oneself with water," and "to bathe."

οἶνον (noun sg neut acc ) "Wine" is from oinos, which means "wine" and "fermented juice of any kind."

νέον (adj sg neut acc) "New" is from neos, which means "young", "youthful", "suited to a youth", "new", "fresh,". and as an adverb of time, "lately", "just now", "anew," and "afresh,"

εἰς (prep) "Into" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

ἀσκοὺς (noun pl masc acc) "Bottles" is from askos, which means "skin", "hide", "skin made into a bag", "wineskin", "belly", "paunch," and "human skin."

παλαιούς: (adj pl masc acc) "Old" is from palaios, which means "old in years," "ancient," (in a good sense) "venerable", "held in esteem," (in a bad way) "antiquated", "obsolete," and "in an old way." 

"Else" is from three Greek words, εἰ δὲ μή, usually translated as "if however not"

εἰ (conj) The " ei " is usually translated as "if" from ei , which is the particle used to express conditions "if" (implying nothing about its fulfillment) or indirect questions, " whether ." It also means "if ever", "in case," and "whenever." It is combined with various conjunctions to create derivative conditions.

δὲ   ( partic ) The "de" is usually translated as "but" from de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if"). 

μή "Not" is me , which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective. -- The negative used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion. The sense is that "you don't want" to do something, not that it isn't done or don't think something that might be true. If it wasn't done or wasn't true, the objective negative of fact would be used.

ῥήξει (verb 3rd sg fut ind act) "Bursts" is from rhegnumi, which means to "break asunder", " rend ", "shatter", "break through," and, in the passive, to "break", "break asunder", "burst,""break forth".

 οἶνος (noun sg masc nom ) "The wine" is from oinos, which means "wine" and "fermented juice of any kind."

τοὺς ἀσκούς, (noun pl masc acc) "Bottles" is from askos, which means "skin", "hide", "skin made into a bag", "wineskin", "belly", " paunch ," and "human skin."

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." --

 οἶνος (noun sg masc nom ) "Wine" is from oinos, which means "wine" and "fermented juice of any kind."

ἀπόλλυται (verb 3rd sg pres ind mp) "Marred" is from apollymi, which means "to demolish", "to lay waste", "to lose", "to perish", "to die", "to cease to exist," and "to be undone."

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." --

οἱ ἀσκοί: (noun pl masc nom) "Bottles" is from askos, which means "skin", "hide", "skin made into a bag", "wineskin", "belly", " paunch ," and "human skin."

[ἀλλὰ (adv/conj) "But" is from alla, which means "otherwise", "but", "still", "at least", " except ", "yet," nevertheless", "rather", "moreover," and "nay." It is a form of the word "other".

οἶνον (noun sg neut acc) "Wine" is from oinos, which means "wine" and "fermented juice of any kind."

νέον (adj sg neut acc) "New" is from neos, which means "young", "youthful", "suited to a youth", "new", "fresh,". and as an adverb of time, "lately", "just now", " anew ," and " afresh ,"

εἰς (prep) "Into" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

ἀσκοὺς  (noun pl masc acc) "Bottles" is from askos, which means "skin", "hide", "skin made into a bag", "wineskin", "belly", " paunch ," and "human skin."

καινούς.] (adj pl masc acc) "New" is from kainos, which means "new", "fresh", "newly made", "newly invented," and "novel."

Related Verses: