Mark 13:24 But in those days,

Greek Verse: 

Literal Translation: 

Still in those these times, after that oppression, "the sun shall be made to darkened, and the moon shall not give the light of hers,"

KJV Verse: 

Mar 13:24 But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light,

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The phrase about the sun and the moon is shown in quotes in the mGNT. This verse rephrases Isa 13:10 in the Greek Old Testament, the Septuagint (see the Greek version here: Isa 13:10).The connection is clearer in Matthew because Isa 13:8 was referred to in Matthew 24:9, just two verses before this verse's parallel in Matthew 24:29.  Versions of this idea are expresses in Act 2:20Rev 6:12, and Rev 8:12, but all of those version use don't use the rare vocabulary in this verse and its parallel.

This Greek word translated as "light" is not the common word but a one that Jesus only uses twice, here and in the parallel in Mark. There is likely an OT source for this word as well, but the verses from Isaiah use the common Greek word for light. This seems to be a reference to the Greek of Joel 2:10 (the Greek version is here) another apocalyptic verse. In the OT, this Greek word is translated from the Hebrew nogahh. The word translated as "light" in Isa 13:10 above is a different word, 'owr. So the use of this uncommon word was a conscious choice on the part of Jesus.

Greek Vocabulary: 

Ἀλλὰ  (adv) "But" is alla, which means "otherwise", "but", "still", "at least", "except", "yet," nevertheless", "rather", "moreover," and "nay."

ἐν (prep) "In" is en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".With the accusative, it means "into," "on," and "for." 

ἐκείναις (adj pl fem dat)"Those" is from ekeinos which means "the person there", "that person", "that thing", "in that case", "in that way", "at that place," and "in that manner."

ταῖς (article pl fem dat) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

ἡμέραις (noun pl fem dat) "Of... days" is from hemera, which, as a noun, means "day" "a state or time of life", "a time (poetic)", "day break" and "day time." It is also and also has a second meaning, of "quiet", "tame (animals)", "cultivated (crops)," and "civilized (people)." --

μετὰ (prep) "After" is from meta, which means "with", "in the midst of", "among", "between", "in common", "along with", "by the aid of", "in one's dealings with", "into the middle of", "coming into", "in pursuit of", "after", "behind", "according to," and "next afterward."

τὴν (article sg fem acc)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

θλίψιν  (noun sg fem acc) "Tribulation" is from thlipsis, which means "pressure", "crushing", and "castration". It is a metaphor for "affliction"and "oppression." Earlier in Mat 24:9, it was translated as "afflicted."

ἐκείνην (adj p sg fem acc) "That" is from ekeinos which means "the person there", "that person", "that thing", "in that case", "in that way", "at that place," and "in that manner."

article sg masc nom) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

ἥλιος (noun sg masc nom) "Sun" is from helios, which means the "sun", "life", "day", "sunshine", "the sun's heat", "brightness," and the sun-god.

σκοτισθήσεται, [2 verses] (verb 3rd sg fut ind pass) "Shall... be darken" is from skotizo, which means "to make dark."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

(article sg fem nom) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

σελήνη [3 verses] (noun sg fem nom) "Moon" is from σελήνη selene, which means "moon", "full moon", "month," and is the name of the goddess of the moon.

οὐ (partic) "Not" is from ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective.

δώσει (verb 3rd sg fut ind act) "Shall...give" is from didomi, which means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe."

τὸ (article sg neut acc) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

φέγγος [2 verses] (noun sg neut acc) "Light" is from pheggos, which means "light", "splendor", "luster", "moonlight", "day," and "light" as a metaphor for glory, pride, and joy.

αὐτῆς, (adj sg fem gen) "Her" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself," "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it."

KJV Analysis: 

But  -- The Greek word translated as "but" denotes an exception or simple opposition. It is used to emphasize the contrast between things like we use "rather". It is the Greek word "other" like we use "otherwise".

in -- The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among." With the accusative, it means "into," "on," and "for."

those  -- The word translated as "those" is an adjective that highlights its noun as in a specific place from a word that means "there." Note that the use of this word could indicate that Jesus was referring to a time in a specific physical location, rather than a time in history.

untranslated -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

days  -- The Greek word translated as "days" means "time," in general, and refers specifically to the "daytime."

after (prep) "With" is meta, which means "with", "in the midst of", "among", "between", "in common", "along with", "by the aid of", "in one's dealings with", "into the middle of", "coming into", "in pursuit of", "after", "behind", "according to,"  "after", "behind",  and "next afterward." -- "After" is the Greek word that usually means "with" or a related concept such as "among" or "by the means of". It also refers to "after" or "behind" when referring to a place, time, or pursuit.

that-- The word translated as "that" is an adjective that highlights its noun as in a specific place from a word that means "there." Note that the use of this word could indicate that Jesus was referring to a time in a specific physical location, rather than a time in history.

untranslated -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

 

tribulation -- The Greek word translated as "tribulation" means "pressure," which is translated as a metaphor for "oppression." Since it primarily means pressure in the sense of "crushing" (and "castration"), it is a more colorful word than the words we used to describe a time of difficulty. Prior to Christ's use, it appears in Greek literature more as a scientific term than a social description.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

sun -- "Sun" is the noun, which means the "sun", "life", "day", "sunshine", "the sun's heat", "brightness," and the sun-god.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translated the Greek verb forms into English.

be -- This helping verb "be" indicates that the following verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translated the Greek verb forms into English.

darkened, "Darkened" is from the verb form of the word for "darkness" that means "to make dark", and, in the passive, as it appears here "to be darkened," and "to be blinded."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.  

moon -- "Moon" is the noun that means "moon", "full moon", "month," and is the name of the goddess of the moon.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translated the Greek verb forms into English.

not -- The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence to captures the same idea.

give The verb translated as "give" means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe." It is almost always translated as some form of "give."

her -- The word translated as "her" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.  This word follows the word light so "of hers."

untranslated -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

light, (WW) "Light" is from a noun that means "light," "splendor," and "luster," but it is not the root word usually translated as "light." It is a more complex worth with the sense of "brightness" and "shining."  It is used as a metaphor for glory, pride, and joy. However, this is not the common Greek word translated as "light." This word is only used here and in the parallel in Mark, In the OT, where this word is used a little over a dozen times, it is translated usually as "brightness" and in Joel as "shining" where it is a reference to the Hebrew word nogahh.

KJV Issues: 

4

KJV List: 

  • MW - Missing Word -- The conjunction meaning "but" is not shown in the English
  • MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" is not shown in the English.
  • MW - Missing Word -- Another article "the" is not shown in the English.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "light" is better translated as "brightness" to conform with its use in the OT and so it isn't confused with the common word for "light."

Related Verses: 

Front Page Date: 

Dec 29 2019