Matthew 13:42 And shall cast them into a furnace of fire:

Spoken to: 

Apostles

Context: 

Parable, Parable of the Weeds, Explanation

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

And they will toss them in to the bread-oven for fire. In that place, there will be lamentation and the mastication of teeth.

KJV : 

Matthew 13:42 And shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The word for "oven" here describes an oven for baking bread or bricks. These were designed so they could be fired by weeds and other useless vegetable matter.  This means that no only do the "weeds" make the grain grow better but that they are also useful in creating the final product, the baked bread.  This verse is usually seen as describing the torment of afterlife, but this verse seems to indicate something productive is happening. Note that this verse is meant to explain the earlier verse, Matthew 13:30, which simply said that the "weeds" were bundled for the fire. Hear, the verse is intended to explain what kind of fire.

The weeping and teeth phrase seems clearly humorous in nature. Jesus speaks speaks verses that use this phrase.  It is always used at the end of the verse as a punchline. "The weeping and gnashing of teeth" are not the common participle froms of "wailing/weeping" and "gnashing" Greek verbs that Jesus uses almost every other verse. They area a more unusual form that we might translate into English as "lamentation" and "mastication." The words are so theatrical that they seem more like Jesus's humor than anger. For more on this topic, see this article.

NIV : 

Matthew 13:42 They will throw them into the blazing furnace, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

Wordplay: 

"The weeping and gnashing of teeth" are not the "weeping" and "gnashing" forms of Greek verbs but more unusual form that we might translate into English as "weepation" and "gnashery." The words are so theatrical that they seem more like Jesus's humor than his anger. 

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

βαλοῦσιν (verb 3rd pl fut ind act) "Cast" is from ballo, which means "to throw", "to let fall, ""to cast, ""to put", "to pour", "to place money on deposit", "push forward or in front [of animals]", "to shed", "to place", "to pay,"to throw [of dice,] ""to be lucky", "to fall", "to lay as foundation", "to begin to form", "to dash oneself with water," and "to bathe."

αὐτοὺς (adj pl masc acc) "Them" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

εἰς (prep) "Into" is from eis, which means "into (of place), ""up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

τὴν (article sg fem acc)  "A" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

κάμινον [2 verses](noun sg fem acc) "A furnace" is kaminos, which imeans "oven," or "furnace." Most frequently for baking bread or bricks.

τοῦ (article sg neut gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

πυρός: (noun sg neut gen) "Of fire" is from pyr, which means "fire", "sacrificial fire", "funeral fire", "hearth-fire", "lightning", "the light of torches," and "heat of fever."

ἐκεῖ (adv)"There" is from ekei, which means "there", "in that place," and in philosophy means "the intelligible world."

ἔσται (3rd sg fut ind mid) "Shall be" is from eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible."

(article sg masc nom)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

κλαυθμὸς [6 verses](noun sg masc nom) "Wailing" is klauthmos which means "a weeping."

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

(article sg masc nom)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

βρυγμὸς [7 verses](noun sg masc nom) "Gnashing" is brugmos, which means "biting", "gobbling," and "chattering."

τῶν (article pl masc gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ὀδόντων. [8 verses](noun pl masc gen) "Of teeth" is odous, which means "tooth", "anything pointed", "prong", "spike", "peak," and "tooth [of a saw]." It is a metaphor for the pain of grief.

KJV Analysis: 

And  -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

cast  - The word translated as "cast" has a number of meanings revolving around "throw" as we do in English with both "throw" and "toss." In dice, it means "to throw" the dice, but with the sense of being lucky.

them-- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective.

into  - -- The word translated as "unto" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

a -- -- (WW) The word translated as "a" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those") that the English "the." See this article for more. 

furnace  - (CW) The word translated as "furnace" is more properly an oven or kiln specifically designed for baking bread or bricks. Because the larger topic here is grain and bread, the word would be heard as the "bread oven." This is a productive use for the weeds. It is not burned to destroy it but to bake the bread from the wheat and leaven.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

fire:  - The Greek word used for "fire" here is also the word that specifically describes sacrificial fires and funeral fires, the root of the word "pyre" in English. However, it is the only word Jesus uses for "fire."

there  - (CW) "There" is a word meaning "there", "in that place," and in philosophy means "the intelligible world." It is more about a specific place than the English phrase "there is" which can mean much the same as "it is."

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be  - -- The verb "is" here is the common form of "be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

wailing - The "wailing" come from a noun form of the verb "weep" which means "to weep", "to cry", "to lament," and "to wail."

and The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

gnashing  -- (CW) The word translated as "gnashing" which primarily means "biting." However, it also means "chattering". Used with the word "darkness," it gives a sense of extreme cold, but the same phrase is also used to refer to tossing people in the fire (Matthew 13:50).

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

teeth. -- The word translated as "teeth" means tooth but it is a metaphor for the pain of grief. Toothaches are serious, continued, painful conditions.

KJV Translation Issues: 

7
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "a" should be "the."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "furnace" specifically means "bread oven."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "there" specifically means "in that place."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "wailing" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "gnashing" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "gnashing" is a common word usually translated as "batting." It also means "chattering."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "teeth" is not shown in the English translation

NIV Analysis: 

untranslated "and"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

They -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the verb.

will -- This helping verb "will " indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

throw - The word translated as "thow" has a number of meanings revolving around "throw" as we do in English with both "throw" and "toss." In dice, it means "to throw" the dice, but with the sense of being lucky.

them-- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective.

into  - -- The word translated as "unto" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

the  -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those") that the English "the." See this article for more. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

blazing:  - (WW, WF) The Greek word used for "blazining" here is also the word that specifically describes sacrificial fires and funeral fires, the root of the word "pyre" in English. However, it is the only word Jesus uses for "fire." It is possessive and follows "furnace" so "of fire."

furnace  - (CW) The word translated as "furnace" is more properly an oven or kiln specifically designed for baking bread or bricks. Because the larger topic here is grain and bread, the word would be heard as the "bread oven." This is a productive use for the weeds. It is not burned to destroy it but to bake the bread from the wheat and leaven.

where -- The word translated as "there" means "there" or "in that place" but it also means "the intelligible world," that is, the world we understand. It refers to a place much more strongly than our word "there" which can be a simple helper to introduce a verb of being.

there  - -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

will -- This helping verb "will " indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be  - When the verb "to be" appears in the future  and so it is translated as "shall be," but in Greek, it doesn't require the word "there" to mean something like "there will be."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

wailing - The "wailing" come from a noun form of the verb "weep" which means "to weep", "to cry", "to lament," and "to wail."

and The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

gnashing  -- (CW) The word translated as "gnashing" which primarily means "biting." However, it also means "chattering". Used with the word "darkness," it gives a sense of extreme cold, but the same phrase is also used to refer to tossing people in the fire (Matthew 13:50).

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

teeth. -- The word translated as "teeth" means tooth but it is a metaphor for the pain of grief. Toothaches are serious, continued, painful conditions.

NIV Translation Issues: 

9
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "and" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "fire" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "blazing" should be "fire."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "blazing" is not an adjective but a pssessive noun, "of fire."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "furnace" specifically means "bread oven."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "weeping" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "gnashing" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "gnashing" is a common word usually translated as "biting." It also means "chattering."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "teeth" is not shown in the English translation

The Spoken Version: 

“And they toss them into the trash heap?” asked Flat Nose, duplicating the Master’s throwing-out-the-trash gesture.
The other students and their Master laughed.
“And they toss them in to the bread-oven,” explained the Master. “for fire.”
The Master repeated his throwing-out-the-trash gesture and everyone laughed.
“To bake the wheat from the good seeds into bread!” added Brother James hopefully.
“James, you’re just getting us deeper into the analogy,” complained Flat Nose, “while the Master trying to dig us out.”
“Well, those going into the fire may get used productively,” commented Johnny Boy, “but they can’t enjoy the fire. No bread for them!”
“In that place,” agreed the Master, “There is going to be lamentation  and the mastication of teeth.”

Front Page Date: 

Dec 28 2020