Mark 12:9 What shall therefore the lord of the vineyard do?...

KJV Verse: 

Mark 12:9 What shall therefore the lord of the vineyard do? he will come and destroy the husbandmen, and will give the vineyard unto others.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

What is he going to do? That the master of the vineyard  He is going to show up, and destroy those  vine dressers and he is going to give the vineyard to others.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

Only at the end of this parable, does Jesus use the term for "Lord" to identify the owner of the vineyard. Here in Mark, he describes him initially as "a man." In Matthew, he starts describing him as the "master of the house." The change to "lord" serve the rhetorical purpose of making Jesus's meaning clear that he is talking about God.

The Matthew 21:40 version of this verse only has the question part of this verse. The crowd provides the answer. The Luke 20:16 version doesn't have the question, only the answer.

KJV Analysis: 

What  -- The word translated as "what" means primarily "anything" or "anyone," but Jesus often uses it to start a question so it means "who", "what", or even "why". The form here is neuter, "anything."

shall -- This helping verb indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping verbs are not needed in Greek.

therefore  -- There is no Greek word that is translated as "therefore" in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

lord -- The word translated as "master" is the same word that is often translated as "Lord" or "the Lord" in the NT. It also means "lord", "master of the house," and "head of the family." It is the specific terms for the master of slaves or servants, but it was a common term of respect both for those in authority and who were honored. It was the term people used to address Christ, even though he had no formal authority. Today, we would say "boss" or "chief".

of -- This word comes from the genitive case of the following word(s) that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns. 

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

vineyard "Vineyard" is the Greek noun that means simply "vineyard."

do? -- The Greek word translated as "to do" has the primary meaning of "making" or producing" something or "causing" or "performing" as service. It describes a productive action.  It is not as broad a word as the English "do", which covers all actions, productive or not. 

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

will -- This helping verb indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping verbs are not needed in Greek.

come -- The word translated as "come" primarily means "to start out" but Christ usually uses it to mean "come" but not always. It indicates movement, especially its beginning, without indicating a direction toward or away from anything, so it works either as "come" or "go," but it is more like our phrase "being underway." Our English word "show up" captures both the "start" and "come" ideas. 

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

destroy  -- The word translated as "destroy" means to destroy or demolish.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article.The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.

husbandmen -- "Husbandmen" is the Greek noun that means "husbandman", "vine dresser", "gardener," and "peasant."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

will -- This helping verb indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping verbs are not needed in Greek.

give -- The verb translated as "give" means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe." It is almost always translated as some form of "give."the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. \\\

vineyard ""The vineyard" a noun that means simply "vineyard."ineyard" is from ampelôn, (ampelon) which means simply "vineyard."

unto -- This word comes from the dative case of the following word(s) that requires the addition of a preposition in English: a "to" as an indirect object, a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, "at" or "on" a time, and an "in" for area of affect. \

others. "Unto others" is a word that means "another", "one besides", "of another sort", "different", "other than what is true", "as well", "besides," {with numerals: "yet", "still", "further"), "of other sort", "other than what is", "untrue", "unreal", "other than right", "wrong", "bad", "unworthy," [with an article] "the rest", "all besides," and [in series] "one...another."

Greek Vocabulary: 

τί ( pron sg neut acc ) "What" is tis which can mean "someone", "any one", "everyone", "they [indefinite]", "many a one", "whoever", "anyone", "anything", "some sort", "some sort of", "each", "any", "the individual", "such," and so on. In a question, it can mean "who", "why," or "what."

ποιήσει  ( verb 3rd sg fut/aor ind/subj act ) "Shall do" is poieo, which means "to make", "to produce", "to create", "to bring into existence", "to bring about", "to cause", "to perform", "to render", "to consider", "to prepare", "to make ready," and "to do."

(article sg masc nom) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

κύριος  (noun sg masc nom) "Lord" is kyrios (kurios), which means "having power", "being in authority" and "being in possession of." It also means "lord", "master of the house," and "head of the family."

τοῦ (article sg masc gen) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἀμπελῶνος;  ( noun sg masc gen )  "Of the vineyard" is from ampelôn, (ampelon) which means simply "vineyard."

ἐλεύσεται  ( verb 3rd sg fut ind mid ) "He will come" is erchomai, which means "to start," "to set out", "to come", "to go," and any kind of motion. It means both "to go" on a journey and "to arrive" at a place.

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἀπολέσει ( verb 3rd sg fut ind act ) "Destroy"  is apollymi, which means "to demolish", "to lay waste", "to lose", "to perish", "to die", "to cease to exist," and "to be undone."

τοὺς (article sg masc gen) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

γεωργούς, ( adj pl masc acc ) "Husbandmen" is georgos, which means "husbandman", "vine dresser", "gardener," and "peasant."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

δώσει  (verb 3rd sg fut ind act)  "Will give" is didomi, which means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe."

τὸν (article sg masc acc) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ἀμπελῶνα  ( noun sg masc acc ) "The vineyard" is from ampelôn, (ampelon) which means simply "vineyard."

ἄλλοις. ( adj pl masc dat ) "Unto others" is allos, which means "another", "one besides", "of another sort", "different", "other than what is true", "as well", "besides," {with numerals: "yet", "still", "further"), "of other sort", "other than what is", "untrue", "unreal", "other than right", "wrong", "bad", "unworthy," [with an article] "the rest", "all besides," and [in series] "one...another."

Wordplay: 

Only at the end of this parable, does the  Christ use the term for "Lord" (kurios) to identify the owner of the vineyard. Here in Mark, he describes him initially as "a man." In Matthew, he starts describing him with oikodespotês, which means "master of the house." The change to "lord" serve the rhetorical purpose of making Christ's meaning clear that he is talking about God.

Related Verses: 

Possible Symbolic Meaning: 

Again, we see the Christ's common symbolic pattern of three plus one where the three verbs plus one represent the three temporal and one eternal aspect of this event. Here, the verb for "doing" (poieô, which also means "to create") represents the eternal.  "Come" is the emotional/relationship aspect. "Destroy" is the physical aspect.  "Give" is the mental aspect.

In the Greek of the Gospels, verbs can indicate how certain the speaker thinks the future event will be. When Jesus speaks of the future in his parables, he usually uses the form the indicates that something will probably happen in the future. Here, however, he uses the form that indicates that this certainly will happen.

Nov 18 2019