Mat 13:50 And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.
And they are tossed in to the bread-oven for fire. In that place, there is going to be weepation and the gnashery of teeth.
This verse duplicaes the verse Mat 13:42 in the same exact words. As we pointed in our discussion of the Parable of the Good Seeds and Weeds, the "furnace" is really an oven used for baking bread and bricks. Again, fire is Christ's metaphor for the intellectual realm, which is productive and the source of wealth.
The word translated as "cast" has a number of meanings revolving around "throw" as we do in English with both "throw" and "toss." In dice, it means "to throw" the dice, but with the sense of being lucky. This word is also a middle passive, the tree is throwing itself in the fire.
The word translated as "furnace" is more properly an oven or kiln specifically designed for baking bread or bricks. Because the larger topic here is raising grain, the word would be heard as the "bread oven." this is a productive use for the false wheat. It is not burned to destroy it but to bake the bread from the true wheat.
The Greek word used for "fire" here is also the word that specifically describes sacrificial fires and funeral fires, the root of the word "pyre" in English.
"There" is a word meaning "there", "in that place," and in philosophy means "the intelligible world." It is more about a specific place than the English phrase "there is" which can mean much the same as "it is." This "there" is where those who are false are purified and their energy "bakes" the true.
The "weeping" come from a noun that means "weeping." The noun form, however, is very formal and unusual, more like "weepation."
The Greek word translated as "and" over and over here is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also."
The word translated as "gnashing" which primarily means "biting." However, the noun form is very formal, like "gnashery."
The word translated as "teeth" means tooth but it is a metaphor for the pain of grief.
This"weeping and gnashing" phrase is used seven times in the Gospels, six times in Matthews. In each case, it the reaction that people have when they are judged as worthless. Christ uses this phrase in same almost humorous way that that we say in English "whining and complaining" or "bitching and moaning," but the words are more formal, intentionally so, because they are not typically the way Christ would say this.
"The weeping and gnashing of teeth" phrase feels like Christ is quoting from literature, play, or perhaps John the Baptist rather than using his normal language. Christ uses the participle forms of verbs, the ones that in English end in -ing, all the time as nouns. These noun are not the "weeping" and "gnashing" forms in Greek but more unusual form that we might translate into English as "weepation" and "gnashery."The words are so theatrical that they seem more like Christ's humor than his anger.
καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis,
βαλοῦσιν (verb 3rd pl fut ind act or verb 3rd pl aor subj act) "Cast" is from ballo, which means "to throw", "to let fall, ""to cast, ""to put", "to pour", "to place money on deposit", "push forward or in front [of animals]", "to shed", "to place", "to pay,"to throw [of dice,] ""to be lucky", "to fall", "to lay as foundation", "to begin to form", "to dash oneself with water," and "to bathe."
αὐτοὺς (adj pl masc acc) "Them" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."
εἰς "Into" is from eis, which means "into (of place), ""up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."
καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." ὁ βρυγμὸς (noun sg masc nom) "Gnashing" is from brugmos , which means "biting", "gobbling," and "chattering."
More about related verses in this article: The End of the World?