Matthew 13:52 Therefore every scribe [who is] instructed...

Spoken to: 

Apostles

Context: 

Parables, Parable of Household Treasures

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

By this, every writer being a student of this realm of the skies is like a person, an householder, who tosses out from his treasure chest both the novel and the venerable.

KJV : 

Matthew 13:52 Therefore every scribe which is instructed unto the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder, which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This verse starts with some wordplay, saying the writers, who were knowledgeable, can be students of the kingdom of the heavens.  Since the scribes are usually referenced by Jesus with the Pharisees, (over twnety times) who were Jesus's opponents, it isn't clear whether this is a positive statement or a negative one.

The key word here is translated as "brings out," but the Greek word is the word usually translated as "cast out." The root word, "cast" was used in Matthew 13:50 to describe being "cast" into an oven. Jesus uses this word primarily to describe "casting out devils" (Matthew 12:28). It is the word he used to describe "casting children of the kingdom" outside (Matthew 8:12) into "the weeping and gnashing of teeth" that was just mentioned in Matthew 13:50. The bulk of evidence seems to indicate that this refers to tossing away more than it does putting on display.

In the previous verse, Jesus said that his concepts must be "put together." Here he may be suggesting that the pieces come  both from the past and the future. However, he may also be suggesting that to put his ideas together. we must toss out old ideas and newer ones.

NIV : 

Matthew 13:52 Therefore every teacher of the law who has become a disciple in the kingdom of heaven is like the owner of a house who brings out of his storeroom new treasures as well as old.”

Wordplay: 

The joke here is describing a "scribe" who was,  a writer and academic, and a type of teacher, becoming a student. 

The words chosen for "new" and "old" have both positive meanings, "novel and venerated," and negative meanings, "unproven" and "worn out." He has used these words in the negative sense referring to new wine and old wine skins in  Matthew 9:17. 

My Takeaway: 

We have to select the write parts to put together a puzzle.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Διὰ (adv) "Therefore" is from dia (with touto below) which means "through", "in the midst of", "in a line (movement)", "throughout (time)", "by (causal)", "among," and "between." --

τοῦτο (adj sg neut acc)  Untransalted is from touto, which means "from here", "from there", "this [thing]," or "that [thing]."

πᾶς (adj sg masc nom) "Every" is from pas, which means "all", "the whole", "every", "anyone", "all kinds," and "anything." In the adverbial form, it means "every way", "on every side", "in every way," and "altogether."

γραμματεὺς [17 verses](noun sg masc nom) "Scribe" is grammateus, which is generally a "secretary", "recorder," and "scholar," but specifically means someone who uses gramma which is Greek for "drawings", "a letter," (as in an alphabet)"diagrams," and "letters" (as in correspondence).

μαθητευθεὶς [2 verses](part sg aor pass masc nom) "Instructed" is matheteuo, which means "to be a pupil" or "to make a disciple of."

τῇ (article sg fem dat)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

βασιλείᾳ (noun sg fem dat) "The kingdom" is from basileia, which means "kingdom", "dominion", "hereditary monarchy", "kingly office," (passive) "being ruled by a king," and "reign."

τῶν (article pl masc gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

οὐρανῶν (noun pl masc gen) "Of Heaven" is from the Greek ouranos, which means "heaven as in the vault of the sky", "heaven as the seat of the gods", "the sky", "the universe," and "the climate." --

ὅμοιός [29 verses](adj sg masc nom) Like is homoios, which means "like", "resembling", "the same", "equal in force, "a match for one", "suiting", "of the same rank", "alike", "in like manner," and "equally."

ἐστιν (verb 3rd sg pres ind act) "Is" is from eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.")

ἀνθρώπῳ (noun sg masc dat) "A man" is from anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

οἰκοδεσπότῃ [12 verses](noun sg masc dat) "Goodman of the house" is from oikodespotês , which is the "master of the house" and also means "steward of a house," and "native ruler." It is a combination of two words. The first part is from oikia, which means "building", "house", "family," and "household," and the second is despotes, which means "master" and "lord" but it isn't the word normally translated as "lord" in the Gospels.

ὅστις (pron sg masc nom) "Which" is from hostis, which means "that", "anyone who", "anything which", "whosoever, ""whichsoever" and "anybody whatsoever."

ἐκβάλλει (verb 3rd sg pres ind act) "Bringeth forth" is from ekballo and means "throw out", "cast out of a place,"and "expose." Ek means "out of", "from," and "away from." Ballo is "to throw" or "to scatter." --

ἐκ (prep) "Out of" is from ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of", "from", "by", "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond", "outside of", "beyond;" 3) [of succession] "after", "from;" 4) [of rest] "on", "in," 5) [of time] "since", "from", "at", "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of", "made from." --

τοῦ (article sg masc dat)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

θησαυροῦ [12 verses] (noun sg masc dat) "Treasure" is thesauros, which means a "store", "treasure", "strong-room", "magazine, "granary", "receptacle for valuables", "safe", "casket", "offertory-box", "cavern," and "subterranean dungeon." --

αὐτοῦ (adj sg masc gen)"His" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

καινὰ [9 verses]( adj pl neut acc) "New" is kainos, which means "new", "fresh", "newly made", "newly invented," and "novel."

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

παλαιά. [8 verses](adj pl neut acc) "Old" is palaios, which means "old in years, ""ancient," (in a good sense) "venerable", "held in esteem," (in a bad way) "antiquated", "obsolete," and "in an old way."

KJV Analysis: 

Therefore -- (WW) The word translated as "therefore" is from two Greek words that mean "by this. The preposition  means "through," in the midst of," or "by (a cause)." The pronoun means "this" means "from here" or "this/that thing."

every -- The word translated as "all" is the Greek adjective meaning "all", "the whole", "every," and similar ideas.

scribe -- "Scribe" is translated from a Greek word describing anyone who used written records in their job, "secretary", "registrar,' and "scholar." However, Jesus used it to name those scholars who specifically studied the Bible and wrote about its meanings who are associated with the Pharisees. A modern equivalent would be "academics."

which is  -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "which is" in the Greek source.

instructed - (WF, WV)  "Instructed" is from a verb that means "to be a pupil" or "to make a disciple of." This is the verb form of the word translated as "disciple." This is a participle, not an active verb and it is passive, "being a student."

unto -- This word "unto" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context.

the  - -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those") that the English "the." See this article for more. 

kingdom  - The word translated as "kingdom" can be the region, the reign, the castle or the authority of a ruler. Here, it is plural and in a form that could be either the object or subject of the verb. Christ does not seem to use it to mean a physical region, so its translation as "reign" or "rule" seems more appropriate.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

heaven  - (WN) The word translated as "heaven" means sky, the climate, and the universe. It is plural. It also meant the home of the gods in a physical sense: the sun, moon, and planets were named for the gods.

is  - -- The verb "is" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. -- When the verb "to be" appears early in the clause before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are." 

like  - -- The word translated as "like" is an adjective that means "like", "resembling," and "matching."

unto   -- This word "unto" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object.

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

man -- The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples". 

that is  - -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "which is" in the Greek source.

an -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

householder, -- "Householder" is from a compound Greek word that is literally the "master of the house." It was translated as "householder."

which  - -- "Which" is a pronoun that means "that", "anyone who", "anything which", "whosoever," "whichsoever" and "anybody whatsoever." 

bringeth -  (WW) "Bringeth" is from a verb that means "throw out." Depending on the context, it can mean "toss out", "turn out," or "take out." It is usually translated as "cast out" in the NT. This is the word used to describe "casting out" demons. Jesus seems to use it somewhat light-heartedly.

forth -- This is from the prefix of the previous verb that means "out of" and "from."

out of  - The Greek preposition translated as "out of" means "out of" of "from." In Greek, they use the genitive case instead of a preposition for the types of phrases with usually use with "of."

his -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

treasure  - The word translated as "treasure" is the noun meaning the "store" of something, so, a "treasure chest," and its secondary meaning is valuables themselves.

things -- This comes from the neuter, plural form of the following adjectives.

new  - (CW) The word translated as "new" is different than the common Greek word for "new." Many of their meanings overlap, but this word also means "of a new kind."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

old.  - The word translated as "old" means old in years both in a good sense and a bad one. In a good sense, it means "venerable" and in a bad sense, "obsolete."

KJV Translation Issues: 

10
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "therefore" should be "by this."
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "which is" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "instructed" is not an active verb but a participle, "being a student."
  • WV - Wrong Voice - The verb here is translated as active but it is passive.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "heaven" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "heaven" is translated as singular but he Greek word is plural, "skies."
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "that is" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "bringeth" should be "tosses."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "treasure" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "new" is not the common word usually translated as "new."

NIV Analysis: 

Therefore -- (WW) The word translated as "therefore" is from two Greek words that mean "by this. The preposition  means "through," in the midst of," or "by (a cause)." The pronoun means "this" means "from here" or "this/that thing."

every -- The word translated as "all" is the Greek adjective meaning "all", "the whole", "every," and similar ideas.

teacher -- (WW) "Teacher" is translated from a Greek word describing anyone who used written records in their job, "secretary", "registrar,' and "scholar." However, Jesus used it to name those scholars who specifically studied the Bible and wrote about its meanings who are associated with the Pharisees. It is not the Greek word normally translated as "teacher." A modern equivalent would be "academics."

of the law who  -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "of the law who" in the Greek source.

has -- (WT) This helping verb "has" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verb here.

become a disciple - (WF, WV)  "Instructed" is from a verb that means "to be a pupil" or "to make a disciple of." This is the verb form of the word translated as "disciple." This is a participle, not an active verb and it is passive, "being a student."

in -- This word "in " comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context.

the  - -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those") that the English "the." See this article for more. 

kingdom  - The word translated as "kingdom" can be the region, the reign, the castle or the authority of a ruler. Here, it is plural and in a form that could be either the object or subject of the verb. Christ does not seem to use it to mean a physical region, so its translation as "reign" or "rule" seems more appropriate.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

heaven  - (WN) The word translated as "heaven" means sky, the climate, and the universe. It is plural. It also meant the home of the gods in a physical sense: the sun, moon, and planets were named for the gods.

is  - -- The verb "is" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. -- When the verb "to be" appears early in the clause before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are." 

like  - -- The word translated as "like" is an adjective that means "like", "resembling," and "matching."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples". 

that is  - -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "which is" in the Greek source.

the -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "the" in the Greek source.

owner of a house , -- "owner of a house" is from a compound Greek word that is literally the "master of the house." It was translated as "householder."

who - -- "Who" is a pronoun that means "that", "anyone who", "anything which", "whosoever," "whichsoever" and "anybody whatsoever." 

brings -  (WW) "Brings" is from a verb that means "throw out." Depending on the context, it can mean "toss out", "turn out," or "take out." It is usually translated as "cast out" in the NT. This is the word used to describe "casting out" demons. Jesus seems to use it somewhat light-heartedly.

out -- This is from the prefix of the previous verb that means "out of" and "from."

of  - The Greek preposition translated as "out of" means "out of" of "from." In Greek, they use the genitive case instead of a preposition for the types of phrases with usually use with "of."

his -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

storeroom - The word translated as "storeroom " is the noun meaning the "store" of something, so, a "treasure chest," and its secondary meaning is valuables themselves.

new  - (CW) The word translated as "new" is different than the common Greek word for "new." Many of their meanings overlap, but this word also means "of a new kind."

treasures -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "treasures" in the Greek source.

as well as -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

old.  - The word translated as "old" means old in years both in a good sense and a bad one. In a good sense, it means "venerable" and in a bad sense, "obsolete."

NIV Translation Issues: 

13
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "therefore" should be "by this."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "teacher" should be "writer."
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "of the law who" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "has" indicates the past perfect tense, but the tense is something that happens at a specific point in time (past, present, or future).
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "become a disciple" is not an active verb but a participle, "being a student."
  • WV - Wrong Voice - The verb here is translated as active but it is passive.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "heaven" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "heaven" is translated as singular but he Greek word is plural, "skies."
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "that is" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "brings" should be "tosses."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "treasure" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "new" is not the common word usually translated as "new."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "treasures" doesn't exist in the source.

The Spoken Version: 

“Are you getting all this?” Brother James asked the young people recording Jesus’s words.
“A lot of new words,” observed Stepheos.
“A lot of old ones too,” his friend added.
The Master and his students laughed.
“By this, every writer being a student of this realm of the skies is like a person,” said the Master, thinking for a moment, “a householder, who tosses out from his treasure chest both the novel and the venerable.”

Front Page Date: 

Jan 7 2021